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Physiocrats

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A. R. J. Turgot

A. R. J. Turgot  

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Literature
(1727–81)French politician and economist. A follower of the physiocrats, Turgot tried to free the grain trade in France from internal tariffs during his brief career as Louis XVI's finance minister ...
Adam Smith

Adam Smith  

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(1723–90)Scottish philosopher and economist. Although best remembered as an economist, Smith was a polymath, and an eminent social theorist and moral philosopher. Born in Kirkcaldy, he was educated ...
Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry  

From 1740 to 1850, the organization and efficiency of much of western European agriculture were transformed. Sometimes called an agricultural revolution, this process was prior to or concomitant with ...
Antoine-Louis-Claude Destutt de Tracy

Antoine-Louis-Claude Destutt de Tracy  

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(1754–1836), French philosopher. In a memoir of 20 June 1796 at the Class of Moral and Political Sciences of the new National Institute, Destutt de Tracy invented the term Ideology ...
cameralism

cameralism  

The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 brought to an end the widespread destruction of the Thirty Years’ War. The rulers of many German principalities were confronted with devastated lands and ...
capital

capital  

1 Man-made material resource used or available for use in production, for example machinery. This is also referred to as physical capital.2 Material or financial wealth, accumulated by an individual ...
civil society

civil society  

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The set of intermediate associations which are neither the state nor the (extended) family; civil society therefore includes voluntary associations and firms and other corporate bodies. The term has ...
Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen

Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen  

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This canonic text, consisting of 17 articles and a preamble, was adopted by the Assemblée Nationale on 26 August 1789 [see Revolution, 1b]. It was the work of a committee ...
economic Thought

economic Thought  

Economics as an autonomous discipline concerned with the allocation of resources to competing ends was a development of the 19th century; it did not exist in the MA. Nevertheless, scholastic ...
economics

economics  

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Religion
The study of the production, distribution, and consumption of resources, and the management of state income and expenditure. See also classical economics, ecological economics, environmental ...
factors of production

factors of production  

Any material goods or services used to make other goods. Factors are equivalent to inputs in the production process, although the term is usually used for broader categories, notably land, labor, and ...
Ferdinando Galiani

Ferdinando Galiani  

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(1728–87).Diplomat and gifted intellectual who was born in Chieti but lived and worked principally in Naples. He is principally remembered for his writings on political economy, dealing with the ...
François Quesnay

François Quesnay  

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(1694 –1774)The court physician of Louis XV of France and the founder of the Physiocrats—a school of economic thought that preceded the classical economics of Adam Smith and David ...
free trade

free trade  

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The flow of goods and services across national frontiers without the interference of laws, tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions. Since World War II, under the auspices of GATT and the World Trade ...
Henry George

Henry George  

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(1839–1897) American writer on political economyProgress and Poverty (1879) Non-FictionThe Irish Land Question (1881) Non-FictionSocial Problems (1884) Non-FictionScience of Political Economy (1897) ...
James Steuart

James Steuart  

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(1713–80)Sir James Steuart (from 1773, Steuart-Denham) died in Edinburgh on 26 November 1780. He was educated at Edinburgh University and admitted advocate in 1735. Thereafter he travelled ...
Jean-François Saint-Lambert, marquis de

Jean-François Saint-Lambert, marquis de  

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(1716–1803).A French soldier and aristocrat, he was a friend of Voltaire (in spite of his affair with Madame du Châtelet) and of the philosophes. He was elected to the ...
Johann Friedrich Struensee

Johann Friedrich Struensee  

(1737–1772), Danish first minister and physician. Struensee was a bourgeois German physician from Halle who, after some time as the town physician in Altona in Holstein, became physician to King ...
L' Homme aux quarante écus

L' Homme aux quarante écus  

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(1768).Satirical narrative by Voltaire, mainly attacking Physiocrat proposals for a single land tax, but incidentally scattering barbs in all directions.
luxury

luxury  

A good or service whose consumption at any given price rises more than in proportion to an increase in income. The income elasticity of demand for a luxury is thus more than unity. A luxury is ...

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