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phrenology

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Alexander Bain

Alexander Bain  

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Philosophy
(1818–1903)Scottish philosopher. The self-taught son of a weaver, Bain eventually enrolled in Marischal College, in Aberdeen, and became a radical follower of J. S. Mill. He was appointed professor ...
Alexander Smith

Alexander Smith  

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Philosophy
(1796–1851)Alexander Smith was born in Banff on 12 June 1796, one of four children of a well-known family of architects and builders, and died there on 12 February 1851. ...
animal magnetism

animal magnetism  

A term introduced in 1779 by the Viennese physician Franz Anton Mesmer (1734–1815) for a substance resembling ordinary magnetism (believed also to be a substance) that he claimed to have discovered ...
anthropology

anthropology  

In philosophical usage, a general theory of human nature, sometimes thought to be the necessary foundation of history and all social sciences. The philosophy of anthropology considers such issues as ...
antiscience

antiscience  

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Is a phantom phenomenon.There are no self-described anti-scientists or degrees in antiscience. Even the most anti-modernist movements oppose science in the name of a better science. Yet the specter ...
complementary medicine

complementary medicine  

Various forms of medicine that are considered as complementary to conventional medicine. These include acupuncture, osteopathy, homeopathy, aromatherapy, and reflexology. Some of these forms of ...
craniometry

craniometry  

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n. the science of measuring the differences in size and shape of skulls.
cult

cult  

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[De]A fragmentary religious grouping, to which individuals are loosely affiliated, but which lacks any permanent structure.
Daniel Noble

Daniel Noble  

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Philosophy
(1810–85)Daniel Noble was born in Preston on 14 January 1810 and died in Manchester on 12 January 1885. The son of Mary Dewhurst and Edward Noble, he studied medicine ...
Dr J. P. Browne

Dr J. P. Browne  

A phrenologist; possibly James P. Browne, MD Edinburgh 1829, listed at 32 Cadogan St, Chelsea, in London Medical Directory1851. After Charlotte Brontë and George Smith visited Browne at 367 Strand ...
faculty psychology

faculty psychology  

An obsolete school of psychology based on arbitrarily posited powers or capacities (called faculties) into which the mind was divided, such as will, reason, and instinct, through whose interaction ...
Franz Joseph Gall

Franz Joseph Gall  

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Literature
(1758–1828).German anatomist and founder of phrenology, who was born in Baden and settled in Vienna (1785) as a physician. He was an anatomist of some distinction and the man ...
Georges Cuvier

Georges Cuvier  

(1769–1832)French comparative anatomist, who became professor at the Collège de France in 1799, moving in 1802 to the Jardin de Plantes. Cuvier extended the classification system of Linnaeus, adding ...
Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer  

(1820–1903)British philosopher and sociologist. He was an early adherent of evolutionary theory, which he set down in his Principles of Psychology (1855). Spencer embraced Darwin's theory of natural ...
language areas in the brain

language areas in the brain  

The study of the neurological basis of language began in 1861 when Paul Broca published his findings from the brain of a patient who had suffered from one form of ...
learning disability

learning disability  

(lern-ing)delayed or incomplete intellectual development combined with social malfunction, such as educational or occupational failure or inability of individuals to look after ...
letters by the Brontë family

letters by the Brontë family  

By comparison with that of prolific writers like Dickens or the Brownings, the Brontës' correspondence is not vast. We know of about 950 letters from Charlotte, written between 1829 and ...
localization of brain function and cortical maps

localization of brain function and cortical maps  

One of the oldest controversies in psychology and neurology concerns localization of function, the notion that different aspects of behaviour are mediated by different parts of the brain. The issue ...
mental sciences

mental sciences  

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The various dimensions of consciousness have long been the subjects of speculation and observation. The modern word “psychology” dates from the seventeenth century, but Greek doctors and philosophers ...
mesmerism

mesmerism  

An obsolete term for animal magnetism or hypnosis. [Named after the Viennese physician Franz Anton Mesmer (1734–1815) who practised animal magnetism, though not hypnosis, in the 1770s]

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