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Photius

(c. 810—895) Byzantine scholar and patriarch of Constantinople

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Abbasid

Abbasid  

A member of a dynasty of caliphs who ruled in Baghdad from 750 to 1258, named after Abbas (566–652), the prophet Muhammad's uncle and founder of the dynasty.
Acathistus

Acathistus  

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(Gk. ‘not sitting’, because it was sung standing), a famous Greek liturgical hymn in honour of the BVM. It may be the work of St Romanos ‘Melodos’, but the authorship is disputed.
Achilles Tatius

Achilles Tatius  

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Greek novelist from Alexandria, author of ‘The Story of Leucippe and Cleitophon’ (Ta kata Leukippēn kai Kleitophōnta) in eight books. Shown by papyri to be circulating by the late 2nd cent. ad, it ...
Agatharchides

Agatharchides  

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Of Cnidus (c.215 to after 145 bc). Greek historian, geographer, and Peripatetic who lived most of his adult life in Alexandria (1), eventually leaving, perhaps in flight to Athens after ...
Alexander of Lycopolis

Alexander of Lycopolis  

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(3rd cent.), writer against Manichaeism. He praises the simplicity and efficacy of Christian philosophy and contrasts it with the illogical and contradictory doctrines of Manichaeism.
Ammonios

Ammonios  

(᾽Αμμώνιος), teacher and commentator on Aristotle; born Alexandria late 5th C., died after 517.Ammonios imbibed paganism from his philosophically minded parents; after the death of his father ...
Amorian or Phrygian Dynasty

Amorian or Phrygian Dynasty  

Family that ruled from 820 to 867 and included Michael II, Theophilos, Theodora, and Michael III; it was so called because its founder, Michael II, was born in Amorion (see ...
anagnōstēs

anagnōstēs  

A reader, often an educated slave, whose duty in Roman houses was to entertain his master and guests at table by a recitation in Greek and Latin. Cicero (Epistulae ad ...
Anastasius Bibliothecarius

Anastasius Bibliothecarius  

(9th century), scholar. He was the best Greek scholar of his age in the W. and became Papal librarian (hence his title). He attended the final session of the Eighth Oecumenical Council (869–70) and ...
Antonius Diogenes

Antonius Diogenes  

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Greek writer of ‘The Incredible Things Beyond Thule’ (Τὰ ὕπερ Θούλην ἅπιστα), a novel (see novel, Greek) in 24 books known only from Photius' confusing epitome (Bibliotheca Cod. 166) and ...
Armenian Church

Armenian Church  

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An independent Christian Church established in Armenia since c.300 and influenced by Roman and Byzantine as well as Syrian traditions. A small Armenian Catholic Church also exists (see Uniate).
Arsenios

Arsenios  

Metropolitan of Kerkyra (9th-10th C.).According to his akolouthia, Arsenios was born in Bethany (Palestine) during the reign of Basil I and became a monk at age 12. After being ...
Ašot I the Great

Ašot I the Great  

(᾽Ασώτιος), founder of the Bagratid kingdom of Armenia; died 890. Succeeding his father as commander-in-chief (sparapet) of Armenia after the devastating Muslim punitive expeditions of the mid-9th ...
Atticism

Atticism  

The use in literature of an archaizing and artificial form of Greek, based on imitation of the language of Athenian writers of the 5th–4th C. b.c. Perpetuated by teachers of ...
autocephalous

autocephalous  

The term was used in the early Church of bishops who were under no superior authority and thus were independent of both Metropolitan and Patriarch, and of those directly dependent on the Patriarch ...
Bardas

Bardas  

(Βάρδας), caesar; died 21 Apr. 866 (TheophCont 206.13).An Armenian from Paphlagonia (Toumanoff, “Caucasia” 136) and brother of Empress Theodora and Petronas, Bardas began his career in the military. ...
Basil

Basil  

(Βασίλειος), personal name (meaning “imperial, royal”).Unknown in antiquity and in the New Testament, the name first appeared in the 4th C. (O. Seeck, RE 3 [1899] 48; PLRE 1:148f). ...
Basil I

Basil I  

Emperor (867–86) and founder of the Macedonian dynasty; born Thrace or Macedonia 830 or 835 (E.W. Brooks, BZ 20 [1911] 486–91) or on 25 May 836 (Adontz, Etudes 67), died Constantinople 29 Aug. ...
beard

beard  

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Full beards were worn by Jewish men, for whom it was a sign of vitality (unlike the Egyptians, Gen. 41: 14). It was an outrage when Hanun, king of the Ammonites, cut off the beards of David's envoys ...
Bibliotheca

Bibliotheca  

Also Myriobiblon (Μυριóβιβλον, “thousand books”), conventional titles of a work of Photios. In the oldest MS (Venice, Marc. gr. 450) the heading of the work is “List and Description of ...

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