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Peter Lombard

(c. 1100—1160)

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absolution

absolution  

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Overview Page
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Religion
The formal act of a bishop or priest pronouncing the forgiveness of sins by Christ to penitent sinners. A formula of absolution is included in many liturgical acts of worship, but according to ...
Albert the Great

Albert the Great  

(1200–80),Dominican friar and bishop. A Swabian by birth, Albert joined the Dominicans at Padua in 1223 against the wishes of his noble family. After teaching at Hildesheim, Ratisbon, and Cologne, ...
Alexander of Hales

Alexander of Hales  

(c.1185–1245)Influential Franciscan theologian and writer on logic, known as ‘Doctor Irrefragabilis’ (irrefutable doctor). Alexander taught the independence of theology, based on revelation, and ...
attrition

attrition  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The sorrow for sin which proceeds from the fear of punishment or a sense of the ugliness of sin. It is contrasted with contrition, which is held to proceed from the love of God.
auctoritates

auctoritates  

In the Middle Ages, auctoritates (authorities) were texts recognised as worthy of credit because they gave clear witness to the truth. Holy Scripture was the auctoritas par excellence, as well ...
Augustinianism

Augustinianism  

St Augustine of Hippo was indisputably the greatest authority after the Bible in the history of Christian thought in the western MA. Indeed, his influence was omnipresent in all areas ...
Aureoli (Aureolus, Auriol), Petrus (Peter)

Aureoli (Aureolus, Auriol), Petrus (Peter)  

(c.1280–1322) French Franciscan theologian and author of,among other things, an influential and extensive commentary on Peter Lombard’s Sentences. He defended the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin ...
capital sins

capital sins  

When the popular expression “capital sins” appeared in the 1270s, it designated seven terms that were the same as the “vices” of the theologians. They were pride, envy, anger, accidie ...
conscience

conscience  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The word now denotes the capacity for judging the rightness of actions, whether in general or in particular. Christians are agreed that it is unique to human beings and that its effectiveness is ...
contrition

contrition  

Since the council of Trent, it has been standard to group together under the term “contrition” the two movements of the soul that are sorrow for having sinned and detestation ...
creationism

creationism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
1 The doctrine that a new soul is created afresh for each person: opposed to traducianism.2 In the philosophy of biology, the belief that perceived difficulties or gaps in the scientific theory of ...
Decalogue

Decalogue  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Another name for the Ten Commandments; the name is recorded from late Middle English, and comes via French and ecclesiastical Latin from Greek dekalogos (biblos) ‘(book of) the Ten Commandments’, ...
degrees, academic

degrees, academic  

In the schools of the 12th c. and at the beginning of the creation of the universities, there was only a single degree, that of licence to teach (licentia docendi).[...]
Dionysius the Carthusian

Dionysius the Carthusian  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(1402–71), theologian and mystic. Besides commentaries on the Bible, he edited or commented on the works of Boethius, Peter Lombard, John Climacus, and Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite, and he wrote ...
economic Thought

economic Thought  

Economics as an autonomous discipline concerned with the allocation of resources to competing ends was a development of the 19th century; it did not exist in the MA. Nevertheless, scholastic ...
eternal life

eternal life  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
In Christianity, not only a life of endless duration but the fullness of life of which the believer becomes possessed here and now through participation in God's eternal being.
Eustace of Arras

Eustace of Arras  

(c.1225–91) Student of Bonaventure, preacher at the University of Paris (1260–73), and regent master (1263–6).He accompanied Louis IX (1214–70) on crusade and was named bishop of Coutances in ...
Faculty

Faculty  

Faculty: power of the Soul, potentia (“potency”) or virtus (“virtue” in the old sense, current up to the Renaissance, of “manly strength”, the Greek dunamis), capacity to produce operations by ...
Final Ends

Final Ends  

The notion of final Ends was defined in the Middle Ages. Undoubtedly the patristic period had a millenarian tendency (a tendency later widely reinforced around the year 1000), but it ...
Francisco de Vitoria

Francisco de Vitoria  

(1483–1546), Spanish Dominican. From 1526 he held the Prime Chair in Theology at the University of Salamanca. By substituting the Summa Theologiae of St Thomas Aquinas for Peter Lombard's ‘Sentences’ ...

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