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Peloponnesian League

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Achaean Confederacy

Achaean Confederacy  

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Federal organization developed by the twelve Achaean cities united in cult of Zeus. First mentioned in 453 bc as Athenian allies, Achaea's independence was guaranteed in 446 (Thirty Years Peace). In ...
Agesilaus

Agesilaus  

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(c.445 to 360bce),king of Sparta (c.400–c.360). The son of the second wife of King Archidamus II, Agesilaus made no impress on the historical record until, against the odds, he ...
alliance (Greek)

alliance (Greek)  

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An agreement between states to fight together against a common enemy. Such alliances might be made either for a limited period or for all time. In a full offensive and defensive alliance it was ...
Arcadia

Arcadia  

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A bleak and mountainous district in the central Peloponnese which became, as a result of references in Virgil's Eclogues, the traditional and incongruous location of the idealized world of the ...
Chilon

Chilon  

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Spartan ephor (c.556 bc), whose wit and wisdom gained him place among the ‘Seven Sages’ of Greece. Related by marriage to kings of both houses, he was said to have been the first to ‘yoke the ephors ...
Cleomenes I

Cleomenes I  

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Agiad king of Sparta (reigned c.520–490 bc), son of Anaxandridas II by a second, bigamous union. His long, activist reign was one of the half‐dozen most influential on record. He pursued an ...
Corinth

Corinth  

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In NT times Corinth (in modern Greece) was the capital of a Roman province and a commercially important city. The Church there was established by St Paul c.50. It included prominent Jewish converts ...
decision-making (Greek)

decision-making (Greek)  

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A Greek state was the community of its citizens, and at least the most important decisions were made by an assembly of the citizens. Democracies and oligarchies differed not over that principle but ...
Epaminondas

Epaminondas  

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(d. 362 bc),Theban general, victor at the battles of Leuctra and Mantinea. By 371 he was one of the Boeotarchs (Boeotian federal officials), and, as such, represented Thebes at the peace conference ...
federal states

federal states  

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Are found in the Greek world from the late 6th cent. bc. The term is used of those organizations in which the separate city‐states (see polis) of a geographical and ethnic region were combined to ...
imperialism

imperialism  

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History
N.a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force: the struggle against Western imperialism.imperialistic adj. imperialistically adv.n.a policy of extending ...
Leuctra

Leuctra  

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Place in SW Boeotia where the Boeotians defeated the Spartans in 371 bc. Epaminondas of Thebes massed his Thebans, 50 deep, on his left, opposite the Spartans themselves, with the élite Sacred Band ...
Mantinea

Mantinea  

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Polis in the northern part of the upland plain of modern Tripolis in eastern Arcadia. Mantinea frequently quarrelled with neighbouring Tegea over the flooding of excess water in the plain ...
Megara

Megara  

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City between Athens and Corinth. It had only difficult access through mountains to the Corinthian Gulf, at Aegosthena and Pagae; its best territory, the plain near the city, was close to Nisaea, the ...
Molossi

Molossi  

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Common name of tribes forming a tribal state (koinon) in Epirus, which originated in northern Pindus (including the Orestae, Fragmente der griechischen Historiker 1 F 107) and expanded southwards, ...
Pausanias

Pausanias  

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Grandson of Pausanias (1), Agiad king of Sparta 445–426 and 409–395 bc: his first reign was as a minor during the temporary deposition of his father Pleistoanax. In 403 he undermined Lysander's ...
Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian War  

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History
The war of 431–404bc fought between Athens and Sparta with their respective allies, occasioned largely by Spartan opposition to the Delian League. It ended in the total defeat of Athens and the ...
Peloponnesus

Peloponnesus  

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The large peninsula of southern mainland Greece, joined to Attica and Boeotia by the Isthmus of Corinth, a mountainous area of complex topography. All the north is highland, from the ...
perioikoi

perioikoi  

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‘dwellers round about’, were neighbouring people, often constituting groups of subjects or half‐citizens, normally with local self‐government. The best‐known group of perioikoi are those of the ...
Sparta

Sparta  

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The settlement developed at the northern end of the central plain of Laconia on land sloping eastwards to the marshy banks (hence ‘Limnae’: see below) of the river Eurotas and ...

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