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Admiral Harold R. Stark

Admiral Harold R. Stark  

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(1880–1972),US naval officer who, as Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), held the highest post in the US Navy at the time the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in December 1941. ...
Admiral Husband E. Kimmel

Admiral Husband E. Kimmel  

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(1882–1968),C-in-C of the US Pacific Fleet which was attacked in Pearl Harbor by the Japanese on 7 December 1941. He was relieved of his command, found guilty of dereliction ...
Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner

Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner  

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(1885–1961),US naval officer who proved to be the most gifted amphibious commander the Pacific war produced.Though he was one of the US Navy's most outstanding pre-war planners—he wrote ...
African-American troops

African-American troops  

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Variously called negro, coloured, and black, the history of African-American soldiers is that of US race relations in general. Even after the abolition of formal discrimination by colour, advancement ...
Air and Space Defense

Air and Space Defense  

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Recognizing that the two great oceans that had protected the United States from invasion for more than a century could now, at least in theory, be overcome through aerial assault ...
Air Warfare

Air Warfare  

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Despite having given birth to the airplane in 1903, the United States was slow to explore the military applications of aviation and had effectively no air arm when war broke ...
aircraft carrier

aircraft carrier  

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A large warship equipped to serve as a base for aircraft that can take off from and land on its deck.
America First.

America First.  

When Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, thereby unleashing World War II, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt sought to aid the Allies by such means as cash-and-carry (September 1939) and the ...
America First Committee

America First Committee  

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An isolationist group organized in September 1940 to fight President Franklin D. Roosevelt's policies. The group conducted its own polls, showing, in contrast to official polls, that the American ...
atrocities

atrocities  

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ǝˈträsiṯēn. pl. -iesan extremely wicked or cruel act, typically one involving physical violence or injury: forces were reported to have committed atrocities against the civilian population | war ...
attack on Clark Field

attack on Clark Field  

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Japanese air raid on principal US air base in the Philippines on 8 December 1941 (see Philippines campaigns). It was as big a military disaster for the USA as the ...
Axis strategy and co-operation

Axis strategy and co-operation  

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Although the leaders of the Axis spoke frequently in public of their co-operation, and they were bound by various treaties (see Tripartite Pact, Pact of Steel, and Anti-Comintern pact), in ...
Bataan Death March

Bataan Death March  

(April 1942) the ruthless forced march of American and Filipino POWs to Japanese prison camps after the fall of Bataan. Some 75,000 surviving defenders of Bataan, most of them ill ...
Battle of Bismarck Sea

Battle of Bismarck Sea  

(March 3, 1943) a World War II naval battle in which combined Allied sea and air forces destroyed a Japanese convoy near New Guinea. Eight troop transports and eight destroyers ...
Battle of Leyte Gulf

Battle of Leyte Gulf  

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(October 1944)A naval battle off the Philippines. In the campaign to recover the Philippines, US forces landed on the island of Leyte. Four Japanese naval forces converged to attack US transports, ...
Battle of Midway

Battle of Midway  

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In 1942, off the Midway Islands in the central Pacific, a decisive sea battle in which the US navy repelled a Japanese invasion fleet, sinking four aircraft carriers. This defeat marked the end of ...
battle of Taranto

battle of Taranto  

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1940.On 11 November 1940, 21 Swordfish aircraft from HMS Illustrious launched a torpedo attack at night on the Italian fleet at anchor off Taranto. Two aircraft were lost but heavy damage was done ...
battleship

battleship  

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The modern equivalent of, and the name derived from, the older sailing ship of the line.From Ship of the Line to ‘Ironclad’.The introduction into warfare at sea during the 1840s and 1850s of the ...
(Benjamin) Sumner Welles

(Benjamin) Sumner Welles  

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(1892–1961),US under-secretary of state from 1937 until his resignation in September 1943. He was highly thought of by Roosevelt who liked to deal with him direct. He represented the ...
carriers

carriers  

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1. Design and developmentBefore the Second World War, aircraft carrier design was driven by naval aircraft characteristics and by the constraints of the 1922 Treaty for the Limitation of ...

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