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Adiabene

Adiabene  

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A small kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (roughly the region of the Little Zab and Great Zab rivers in present-day Iraq), whose ruler Izates, along with his mother, Helena, and his ...
Antioch Margiana

Antioch Margiana  

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(southern Turkmenistan, 30 km. (18 mi.) east of modern Merv), situated in the narrow, fertile valley of the Murghab river, separated by the Kopet Dağ mountains on the west from ...
Antiochus III

Antiochus III  

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(‘the Great’) (c. 242–187 bc), second son of Seleucus (2) II, succeeded to the Seleucid throne as a young man, after the assassination of his elder brother, Seleucus (3) III. ...
Arsacids

Arsacids  

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The Iranian royal dynasty with its original centre in Parthia, ruling c.250 bc–ad 224; named after the tribal chieftain Arsacēs, who had invaded the former Seleucid satrapy of Parthia from the north ...
Bactria

Bactria  

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An ancient country in central Asia, corresponding to the northern part of modern Afghanistan. Traditionally the home of Zoroaster, it was the seat of a powerful Indo-Greek kingdom in the 3rd and 2nd ...
Cornēlius Sulla Fēlix, Lūcius

Cornēlius Sulla Fēlix, Lūcius  

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B. c.138 bc of an old patrician family, after a dissolute youth inherited a fortune from his stepmother, which enabled him to enter the aristocratic career. Chosen by Marius as his quaestor (107) he ...
Crassus

Crassus  

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Son of Publius Licinius Crassus (consul 97 bc, escaped from Cinna to Spain, joined Sulla after Cinna's death, played a prominent part in regaining Italy for him, and made a fortune in Sulla's ...
Ctesiphon

Ctesiphon  

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On the river Tigris, c. 96 km. (60 mi.) above Babylon, was a village garrisoned by Parthia from c.140 bc as an Asiatic stronghold opposite Hellenistic Seleuceia (1), becoming (from ...
Diodotus I

Diodotus I  

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Founder of the Graeco-Bactrian monarchy. Formerly the Seleucid satrap of Bactria-Sogdiana, the date and circumstance of his independence remain uncertain. Some place his rebellion as early as 256 bc, ...
Diodotus II

Diodotus II  

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Son and successor of Diodotus (1) I. During his reign (c. 235–226 bc), he allied with the Parthians and abandoned the use of the Seleucid name Antiochus on his coinage. He was overthrown by ...
Domitius Corbulo, Gnaeus

Domitius Corbulo, Gnaeus  

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Through the six marriages of his mother Vistilia, was connected with many prominent families: one of his stepsisters married the emperor Gaius (1). In ad 47 he was legate of Lower Germany when he ...
Edessa

Edessa  

Hellenistic capital; cradle of Syriac Christianity, it rose to be Syria’s most important see before seizure by the Arabs c.640. Captured by the Byzantines in 944, it became the centre ...
Elymais

Elymais  

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Greek term for western part of ancient Elam, i.e. mod. Khuzistan in SW Iran. The main city is Susa, lying in a well-irrigated plain, hence another term (broadly) for the ...
Eucratides I

Eucratides I  

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(‘the Great’), Graeco-Bactrian king c.170–145bc. His brilliant but warlike reign marked the climax of Greek rule in Bactria(-Sogdiana). Just. Epit. 61. 6. 1–5 compares him to Mithradates the Great of ...
Europus

Europus  

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On the middle Euphrates, founded by the Seleucids as a military colony c.300 bc, and a polis in the 2nd cent. bc. Its importance is chiefly archaeological: excavations in the ...
Hatra

Hatra  

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In semi-desert northern Mesopotamia, c.80 km. (50 mi.) south of Mosul, flourished greatly as a semi-independent city with water resources and territory between Rome and Parthia c. ad 90–241, as ...
Hecatompylus

Hecatompylus  

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Near Damghan, NE Iran, a site 8 km. (5 mi.) long identified by British excavators (1960s) as capital (also, Comis ?) of the Seleucid and Parthian province Comisene, created an ...
Iulius Quadratus Bassus, Gaius

Iulius Quadratus Bassus, Gaius  

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(RE Suppl. 14. 425a)from Pergamum, of regal ancestry, legate (see legati) of Judaea c. ad 102/3 –5, suffect consul 105, commander and companion of Trajan in the Second Dacian ...
Licinius Crassus, Marcus

Licinius Crassus, Marcus  

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Escaped from Cornelius Cinna to Spain, joined Sulla after Cinna's death, played a prominent part in regaining Italy for him, and made a fortune in Sulla's proscriptions. After his praetorship he ...
Licinius Lucullus, Lucius

Licinius Lucullus, Lucius  

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Served in the Social War under Sulla and, as quaestor (88 bc), was the only officer who supported his march on Rome. As proquaestor in the east, he was Sulla's most reliable officer, charged with ...

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