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Abdul Hamid II

Abdul Hamid II  

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Religion
(d. 1918)Thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan (r. 1876–1909). His reign faced overwhelming difficulties: an insolvent treasury, violent nationalist movements in the Balkans, antireform movements among some ...
Arab Nationalism

Arab Nationalism  

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Overview Page
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Religion
Defined by an anticolonial ethos and the glorification of origins and history in the face of Western dominance experienced by Arab countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Aims at ...
caliph

caliph  

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Religion
The chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad. The caliph ruled in Baghdad until 1258 and then in Egypt until the Ottoman conquest of 1517; the title was then held ...
Ideology and Islam

Ideology and Islam  

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Religion
Most Muslims claim that “Islam is one” and offers a blueprint for all aspects of life. Islam increasingly occupies a special place in school curricula, and states seek to control what is said in ...
international Relations

international Relations  

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Overview Page
The discipline that studies interactions between and among states, and more broadly, the workings of the international system as a whole. It can be conceived of either as a multidisciplinary field, ...
Jamal al-Din al- Afghani

Jamal al-Din al- Afghani  

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Religion
(d. 1897)Thinker and political activist. Born and raised in Iran, although claimed to be of Afghan origin. Educated in Iran and Iraq. Traveled to India, where he came into contact with British ...
Muslim Brotherhood

Muslim Brotherhood  

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Religion
An Islamic fundamentalist movement created by the pious Egyptian Muslim schoolteacher Hasan al-Banna (b. 1906, d. 1949) in 1928. Aiming to rejuvenate Islam, it sought to impose Islamic law (Shariah) ...
Organization of the Islamic Conference

Organization of the Islamic Conference  

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Religion
Founded in 1971 in the aftermath of a 1969 fire at the al-Aqsa mosque. Primary goals are the promotion of Islamic solidarity among member states; consolidation of cooperation in economic, social, ...
umma

umma  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The whole community of Muslims bound together by ties of religion. The word is Arabic and means literally, ‘people, community’.

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