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paleoclimate

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Antarctic Ice Sheet

Antarctic Ice Sheet  

The Antarctic ice sheet is the world's largest ice mass, with an area of 13.83 million square kilometers; it constitutes 90 percent of the total volume of ice and 70 ...
Arctic

Arctic  

The area lying above 66.5° North that is dominated by the Arctic Ocean but also includes large land areas in Canada, Russia, Greenland, Scandinavia, Iceland, and Alaska. Some of the land areas, ...
atmospheric structure

atmospheric structure  

The broadly horizontal layering of the atmosphere, the layers being distinguished by differences in the rate of change of temperature with height, which either favour or discourage the development of ...
biogeography

biogeography  

The study of the geographical distribution of plants and animals at different taxonomic levels, past and present, the habitats in which they occur, and the ecological relationships involved.
biosphere

biosphere  

The whole of the region of the earth's surface, the sea, and the air that is inhabited by living organisms.
climate

climate  

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The characteristic pattern of weather elements in an area over a period. The weather elements include temperature, rainfall, humidity, solar insolation, wind, etc. The climate of a large area is ...
Climate Reconstruction

Climate Reconstruction  

Our knowledge of climate history prior to the availability of instrumental records comes from two main sources: (1) historical observations, where information on past climatic conditions is contained ...
climatology

climatology  

The study of the origins and impacts of climates.
Cores

Cores  

Land and marine sediments and continental ice sheets can be drilled mechanically to obtain cores containing geological evidence of past climates. The materials examined from within the cored ...
dating methods

dating methods  

During the last century geologists constructed a relative time-scale based on correlation of palaeontological and stratigraphic data. Depositional rates of sediments have also been employed as a ...
Earth Motions

Earth Motions  

The motions of Earth, particularly with respect to the Sun, are a fundamental control of many of the environmental changes that have taken place through geologic time. The Earth rotates ...
energetics

energetics  

The study of how energy is transferred and used in a system, such as an ecosystem.
Geology and Weather

Geology and Weather  

The surface of the Earth, including the geology and topography of the planet, is influenced profoundly by weather and its effects. Weathering can be described as the breakdown or other ...
glacier

glacier  

A mass of ice which may be moving, or has moved, overland: when enough ice has accumulated, a glacier will start to move forwards. A glacier may be seen to be the result of a balance between ...
global warming

global warming  

The gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants.
greenhouse effect

greenhouse effect  

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The trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the ...
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  

(IPCC)A panel of experts established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization with a mandate to assess knowledge of the climate system and ...
isotope

isotope  

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One of two or more atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons in their nucleus but different numbers of neutrons. Hydrogen (1 proton, no neutrons), deuterium (1 proton, 1 ...
Little Ice Age

Little Ice Age  

A period between about 1550 and 1860 during which the climate of the middle latitudes became generally harsher and there was a world-wide expansion of glaciers. The effects have been recorded in the ...
Models and Modeling

Models and Modeling  

Models of weather and climate range from rather simple to very complex. The simplest are conceptual or qualitative models that merely try to sort out the mechanisms involved in an ...

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