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Agrippa

Agrippa  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
1. Herod Agrippa I, grandson of Herod the Great; the name ‘Agrippa’ was assumed on account of a friendship with Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, son-in-law of the emperor Augustus. In 37 ce he was given the ...
Aḥmad Yāsīn

Aḥmad Yāsīn  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Aḥmad Yāsīn (1936–2004)was the founder of the Palestinian Islamist resistance movement Ḥamās. He was born in 1936 in al-Jurah, near present-day Ashkelon. In 1948, following Israel's creation, his ...
al- Aqṣā

al- Aqṣā  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Seventh-century mosque in the Haram al-Sharif, Jerusalem. Known as the “Farther Mosque” to distinguish it from the “Holy Mosque” of Mecca. Mentioned in connection with the Prophet's Noctural Journey ...
al- Fatah

al- Fatah  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A militant Palestinian organization. It was founded (1962) in Kuwait to fight for the restoration of Palestine to the Arabs. Al-Fatah assumed the leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organization ...
alphabet

alphabet  

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Overview Page
1. A particular sequential arrangement of a set of letters or other graphic symbols used to write a language in which these graphemes are used to represent the basic speech sounds or phonemes.2. A ...
Apophthegmata Patrum

Apophthegmata Patrum  

Collections of sayings of, or brief stories about, Egyptian monks, known in English as ‘Sayings of the Desert Fathers’. The material dates from the 4th–5th cents. and vividly conveys the spirit of ...
Arab League

Arab League  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
An organization of Arab states, founded in Cairo, Egypt in 1945. The principal aims of the League are to protect the independence and sovereignty of its members and to strengthen the ties between ...
Arab Nationalism

Arab Nationalism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Defined by an anticolonial ethos and the glorification of origins and history in the face of Western dominance experienced by Arab countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Aims at ...
Arabia

Arabia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A peninsula of SW Asia, largely desert, lying between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf and bounded on the north by Jordan and Iraq, which is the original homeland of the Arabs and the historic centre ...
Arabic christian literature

Arabic christian literature  

Each province of the Byzantine Empire conquered by the Muslims at the end of the 7th c. kept (as today) a more or less numerous Christian community, with its own ...
Arabic papyri

Arabic papyri  

Employed from at least 2000 bc in Egypt, its land of origin, the papyrus was used by the Arabs following their conquest of that country in 640. Its Islamic utilization ...
Arab-Israeli Conflict

Arab-Israeli Conflict  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Ongoing conflict between Arabs and Israel over Palestinian territory. The origins of the conflict lie in the Balfour Declaration (1917), which promised “a national home for the Jewish people,” and in ...
Aramaic

Aramaic  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A branch of the Semitic family of languages, especially the language of Syria used as a lingua franca in the Near East from the 6th century bc, later dividing into varieties one of which included ...
Archibald Percival Wavell

Archibald Percival Wavell  

(1883–1950).British general, commander‐in‐chief Middle East from July 1939, he directed campaigns against Italians after June 1940. In Cyrenaica he won a series of spectacular victories from December ...
Arculf

Arculf  

Little-known, late-7th-century Gallic bishop, who visited Palestine, Egypt, and Constantinople (c.679–82). A storm-battered return took him to Iona where Abbot Adomnán (679–704) used Arculf’s ...
art and architecture: Mamluk

art and architecture: Mamluk  

(1250–1517)Military slaves of Turkish descent who ruled Egypt, Syria, and Palestine. They are considered among the greatest patrons of the arts in the history of Islam, and the cities ...
Ayyubids

Ayyubids  

A dynasty of independent Sunni rulers, founded by Saladin (in Arabic Salāh al-Dīn ibn Ayyūb), which reigned in Egypt, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia and Yemen from 1171 to 1260, ensuring the ...
Balfour Declaration

Balfour Declaration  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(2 November 1917)A declaration by Britain in favour of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It took the form of a letter from Lord Balfour (British Foreign Secretary) to Lord Rothschild, a prominent ...
baths

baths  

[Co]A feature of all Roman towns and cities as well as private houses throughout the empire. From the 1st century bc onwards, the tradition of bathing became a major social institution. See thermae.
Battle of Karama

Battle of Karama  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The Battle of Karama took place on 21 March 1968 between Palestinian guerrilla groups, Jordanian infantry, and the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF). Following the defeat of Arab forces by Israel ...

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