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Pakistan

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Abdur Rahman Chughtai

Abdur Rahman Chughtai  

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(b. Lahore, California, 21 Sept. ?1894; d. Lahore, 17 Jan. 1975).Pakistani painter, etcher and engraver. Though he was self-taught, his early style is indistinguishable from that of the Bengal ...
Afghanistan

Afghanistan  

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History
Still a battleground between the Taliban and government and NATO forces.Afghanistan is a largely mountainous country: more than half the territory is above 2,000 metres. Its central highlands are the ...
Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamaah

Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamaah  

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Religion
People of the Prophet's Way and the Community. Also known as Barelvis and Barelwis. Founded in northern India in 1880s, based on the writings of Mawlana Ahmad Reza Khan Barelwi. Believe themselves ...
Ahmadis

Ahmadis  

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Controversial messianic movement founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian, Punjab (British-controlled India), in 1889. Founder claimed to be a “nonlegislating” prophet (thus not in opposition to the ...
Ahmed Parvez

Ahmed Parvez  

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(b. Rawalpindi, 1926; d. Karachi, 5 Oct. 1979).Pakistani painter. Parvez started his career in Lahore, winning first prize in a 1952 exhibition at Punjab University. Most of his early ...
Ajoka

Ajoka  

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Founded in 1980 by Madeeha Gauhar in Lahore, Ajoka is a leading alternative theatre in Pakistan. Meaning ‘dawn of a new day’ in Punjabi, Ajoka began with street theatre against ...
Asian Development Bank

Asian Development Bank  

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(ADB; AsDB).Regional international agency patterned on the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) and based in Manilla, the Philippines, and providing funds to the Asian ...
Azad Kashmir

Azad Kashmir  

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Religion
Azad Kashmir is the state of Jammu and Kashmir administered by Pakistan. Known as Azad (“free”) Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) by Pakistanis and its inhabitants and as “Pakistan-occupied Kashmir” (POK) ...
Bangladesh

Bangladesh  

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History
A tropical low-lying country of the Indian subcontinent.Physical.Situated at the head of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh is mainly occupied by the deltas of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. It is a land ...
Benazir Bhutto

Benazir Bhutto  

(b. 21 June 1953; d. 27 Dec. 2007).Prime Minister of Pakistan 1988–90, 1993–6Early careerBorn in the Sind Province as the daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Benazir studied history and politics at ...
Bux

Bux  

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(b. Wazirabad, 1895; d. Lahore, 1978).Pakistani painter and etcher. Apprenticed at age five to Master Abdulla, a Mughal miniature artist of Lahore, by age fourteen Bux had become an ...
Commonwealth

Commonwealth  

The term ‘Imperial Commonwealth’ was first used formally during the First World War to refer collectively to Britain and the self-governing dominions of the British Empire. After the war, Canada ...
decolonization

decolonization  

This term, while not one of art in international law, is frequently employed in U.N. practice to connote the process whereby territories evolve from colonial status to full sovereign statehood. ...
Deobandis

Deobandis  

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Religion
Indo-Pakistani reformist ulama movement centered in the Dar al-Ulum of Deoband. The school was founded (1867) by scholars associated with the thought of Sayyid Ahmad Reza Khan Barelwi to preserve the ...
Diaspora and Exile

Diaspora and Exile  

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Religion
The terms diaspora and exile are sometimes used interchangeably to refer to people forced to leave traditional homelands or otherwise violently dispersed. Diaspora was used by Greeks to refer to ...
Eqbal Ahmad

Eqbal Ahmad  

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Religion
A critical thinker on world politics and the contemporary Arab-Islamic world, Eqbal Ahmad (1933–1999) wrote prolifically on a wide range of subjects. He addressed the rise of anticolonial movements, ...
Gulgee

Gulgee  

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Ismail (b. Peshawar, 25 Oct. 1926; d. Karachi, 14 Dec 2007).Pakistani painter and sculptor. He began painting while training as an engineer in the USA (Columbia and Harvard universities) ...
India

India  

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History
The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growthIndia's vast territory can be divided into three main regions from north to south. ...
India from Indira Gandhi's Emergency

India from Indira Gandhi's Emergency  

Unbounded optimism and expectation existed when India became an independent nation on 15 August 1947, after nearly 150 years of British rule. It was widely assumed that because colonial rule ...
India-Pakistan Wars

India-Pakistan Wars  

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Relations between the states of India and Pakistan have been blighted since the two states gained their independence in 1947. The Hindu states of British India formed the new country ...

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