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original Sin

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Actual Sin

Actual Sin  

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Religion
A sin which is the outcome of a free personal act of the human will. In Christian theology it is contrasted with Original Sin. See also sin.
Adam and Eve

Adam and Eve  

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Religion
The first parents of the human race, whose story is told in the opening chapters of the book of Genesis. There is no doubt that until the nineteenth century Adam and Eve were held to be historical ...
Albert Pighi

Albert Pighi  

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Religion
(c.1490–1542), Dutch Catholic theologian. His main work, Hierarchiae Ecclesiasticae Assertio (1538), was an elaborate defence of tradition as a source of Christian truth co-ordinate with Scripture; ...
Ambrosius Catharinus

Ambrosius Catharinus  

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Religion
(c.1484–1553), theologian. Lancelot Politi became a Dominican in 1517, taking the name of two saints of the Order. He was soon employed in controverting Lutheran teaching. In Siena, he incurred the ...
Book of Concord

Book of Concord  

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Religion
The collective name for the six founding documents of the Lutheran confession, consisting of the Formula of Concord (Formula Concordiae), the Augsburg confession of 1530 (Confessio Augustana), ...
Cappadocian Fathers

Cappadocian Fathers  

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Religion
St Basil the Great, St Gregory of Nazianzus, and St Gregory of Nyssa (qq.v.).
Celestius

Celestius  

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Religion
(5th cent.), heretic. A native of Britain, he was practising as an advocate in Rome when he met Pelagius. They became convinced that the contemporary low morality could be reformed only by stressing ...
concupiscence

concupiscence  

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Philosophy
(Latin, concupiscere, to desire, covet).In theological ethics, concupiscence comes in three grades: it may cover first, the whole range of appetite and desire; secondly, that desire which is not ...
Conference of Worms

Conference of Worms  

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Religion
(1540–41). A meeting designed to reunite the Catholics and Protestants in Germany. After an agreed formula had been reached on Original Sin, discussion ended in view of the forthcoming Reichstag at ...
Council of Trent

Council of Trent  

An ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, held in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in Trento. Prompted by the opposition of the Reformation, the council clarified and redefined the ...
Czechoslovak Church

Czechoslovak Church  

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Religion
The origins of the so-called Czech National Church (Československá Církev) lie in longstanding Bohemian traditions of national Catholicism (see Huss, J.) and go back to an association of Catholic ...
Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert

Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert  

(1522–90), Dutch theologian. He defended liberalism against the strongly Calvinist doctrines then current in the Netherlands. He rejected the idea of a visible Church and maintained the sufficiency ...
economic theory

economic theory  

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It is a commonplace that the Greek philosophers had no economic theory. Three reasons are advanced for this absence: (1) the merely embryonic existence of the relevant institutions, esp. the ...
Episcopius

Episcopius  

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Religion
The assumed name of Simon Bisschop (1583–1643), who systematized the typical tenets of Arminianism. One of the signatories of the Remonstrance (1610), he was chief spokesman of the Remonstrants ...
Fall

Fall  

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Religion
The lapse of humankind into a state of sin, ascribed in traditional Jewish and Christian theology to the disobedience of Adam and Eve as described in Genesis; also called the Fall of Man.In North ...
Fall of Adam

Fall of Adam  

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Religion
While it is incorrect to say that post-biblical Judaism attaches no special significance to Adam's fall or knows nothing of original sin, it is certainly true that, with the exception of the Kabbalah ...
grace

grace  

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Religion
In Christian belief, the free and unmerited favour of God, as manifested in the salvation of sinners and the bestowal of blessings.Grace in Christian usage also denotes a short prayer of thanks said ...
Humani Generis

Humani Generis  

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Religion
The encyclical of Pius XII (12 Aug. 1950) aimed at correcting extreme opinions which had become prominent in the post-war theological revival. It rejected Existentialism; excessive emphasis of the ...
ʿIlm

ʿIlm  

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Religion
(Arab.).Knowledge, especially of fiqh and kalām. ʿIlm, of all kinds, has particularly high status in Islam, because a strong doctrine of creation (all things coming from God and potentially ...
Immaculate Conception

Immaculate Conception  

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Religion
The dogma that the Blessed Virgin Mary was, from the first moment of her being conceived, free from all stain of original sin. It and the feast of the conception ...

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