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operant

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avoidance conditioning

avoidance conditioning  

In operant conditioning, a form of negative reinforcement in which an organism avoids an aversive stimulus by making a particular response. Typically, a rat is placed in a long, narrow alleyway with ...
biofeedback

biofeedback  

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n. the giving of immediate information to a subject about his or her bodily processes (such as heart rate), which are usually unconscious, by means of monitoring devices. This may enable some ...
compound reinforcement schedule

compound reinforcement schedule  

In operant conditioning, any reinforcement schedule that incorporates two or more simple schedules. Also called a compound schedule or a higher-order reinforcement schedule. See chained reinforcement ...
conditioned avoidance learning

conditioned avoidance learning  

A form of operant conditioning in which the organism must make a particular response to evade punishment. See avoidance conditioning.
conditioning

conditioning  

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A process by which animals learn about a relation between two events. In classical ( or Pavlovian) conditioning, repeated presentations of a neutral stimulus (e.g. the sound of a bell or buzzer) are ...
emitted behaviour

emitted behaviour  

In the theory of operant conditioning, responses made spontaneously by an organsim as a result of internal factors rather than external reinforcement. See also operant. US emitted behavior.
escape conditioning

escape conditioning  

A form of operant conditioning in which an organism learns to avoid an aversive stimulus. Typically, a rat is placed in a long, narrow alleyway with an electrified grid floor and can escape painful ...
higher order conditioning

higher order conditioning  

A form of classical conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus CS1 is first paired with an unconditioned stimulus, in the usual way, until CS1 elicits a conditioned response, then a new conditioned ...
higher-order reinforcement schedule

higher-order reinforcement schedule  

In operant conditioning, any reinforcement schedule that incorporates two or more simple schedules. Also called a higher-order schedule or a compound reinforcement schedule. See chained reinforcement ...
negative reinforcement

negative reinforcement  

In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a response as a consequence of its being followed by the cessation or avoidance of an aversive stimulus. See avoidance conditioning, escape conditioning. ...
partial reinforcement

partial reinforcement  

In operant conditioning, any reinforcement schedule in which the organism is not rewarded after every response. Also called intermittent reinforcement. See also partial reinforcement effect. Compare ...
reinforcement

reinforcement  

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(in animal behaviour)Increasing (or decreasing) the frequency of a particular behaviour through conditioning, by arranging for some biologically important event (the reinforcer) always to follow ...
reinforcement schedule

reinforcement schedule  

In operant conditioning, a particular arrangement of the contingency of reinforcement (1), relating an organism's responses to the frequency and timing of the reinforcement. In continuous ...
respondent conditioning

respondent conditioning  

Another name for operant conditioning.
secondary reinforcement

secondary reinforcement  

In operant conditioning, reinforcement by means of a stimulus (7) that has acquired reinforcing properties by having been paired with a reinforcer. For example, if a bell is sounded repeatedly before ...
shaping

shaping  

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n. a technique of behaviour modification used in the teaching of complex skills or in encouraging rare forms of behaviour. At first the therapist rewards actions that are similar to the desired ...
Skinner box

Skinner box  

In laboratory studies of animal behaviour, a cage in which an animal may learn that the performance of a particular activity (e.g. pressing a bar) is rewarded (e.g. with food) so that its behaviour ...
Skinnerian conditioning

Skinnerian conditioning  

Another name for operant conditioning. [Named after the US psychologist B(urrhus) F(rederic) Skinner (1904–90) who introduced the procedure in his Ph.D. dissertation in 1931]
social learning

social learning  

The processes by which social influences alter people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviour. The earliest social learning theories, put forward in 1950 by the US psychologists John Dollard (1900–80) ...
stimulus generalization

stimulus generalization  

The tendency for a learned response to a particular stimulus (1) to be elicited by other stimuli that resemble it. In operant conditioning, it is the tendency to respond, after conditioning, to ...

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