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Abbasid

Abbasid  

A member of a dynasty of caliphs who ruled in Baghdad from 750 to 1258, named after Abbas (566–652), the prophet Muhammad's uncle and founder of the dynasty.
advocate

advocate  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
N.1 One who exercises a right of audience and argues a case for a client in legal proceedings. In magistrates' courts, the county courts, tribunals, coroners' courts, and the European courts both ...
affirm

affirm  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
Vb.1 To confirm a legal decision, particularly (of an appeal court) to confirm a judgment made in a lower court.2 To promise in solemn form to tell the truth while giving evidence or when making an ...
affirmation

affirmation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
In English civil law, a solemn declaration in place of an oath made by those who have conscientious objection to being sworn, either because of their religious conviction or because they have no ...
agnostic

agnostic  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A person who believes that nothing certain can be known about the existence of God or anything else beyond the material, and may therefore prefer to make an affirmation rather than an oath.[...]
associations

associations  

Reference type:
Overview Page
National medical associations began to appear in the 19th century when many European countries and the United States were experiencing increases in population and the public health hazards associated ...
Barbarian Laws

Barbarian Laws  

Until their settlement in the Roman Empire, the German peoples followed oral customary laws. The establishment of the Romano-barbarian kingdoms made necessary the revision of common Roman law and the ...
Bernold of Constance

Bernold of Constance  

(d. 1100) Monk, polemicist, canonist, and historian.Perhaps the most learned figure of his time, Bernold belongs to a south German tradition of scholarship that also includes Herman the Lame ...
biological and chemical warfare

biological and chemical warfare  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Chemical and biological weapons are often considered together because they are weapons of mass destruction. Chemical weapons have been used in recent years by nations and terrorist groups but there ...
blood brother

blood brother  

Fictive kinship relationship apparently entered into by exchanging oaths. Although the phenomenon is known cross-culturally, the most important medieval manifestations are from the North. The terms ...
bourgeois

bourgeois  

Etymologically speaking, an inhabitant of a burgus (burgh), gradually equivalent to the judicial notion of civis (citizen, belonging to a city) as defined in urban privileges. Being or becoming a ...
Caen

Caen  

A city and river port in Normandy in northern France, on the River Orne, which is the burial place of William the Conqueror. The town was the scene of fierce fighting between the Germans and the ...
caliph

caliph  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad. The caliph ruled in Baghdad until 1258 and then in Egypt until the Ottoman conquest of 1517; the title was then held ...
capitulations, electoral

capitulations, electoral  

From the 12th c., at episcopal elections, certain colleges of canons imposed a “capitulation” on the elect, obliging him to follow a certain policy and renounce certain rights. This custom ...
Charles the Bald

Charles the Bald  

[Na]Frankish leader, born ad 823, youngest son of Louis the Pious. King of the West Franks who outlived his brothers and many of their heirs to become emperor in ad 875. He died in ad 877.
Cid, the

Cid, the  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(c. 1030–99),the favourite hero of Spain in whose story history and myth are difficult to disentangle. Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, el Cid Campeador, of a noble Castilian family, rose to fame by his ...
Civil office, official

Civil office, official  

“To our officials is given, under our authority the direction of the acts by which are policed and maintained the public affairs of our realm of which they are the ...
Civil procedure

Civil procedure  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
One of the eleven core subjects a law student must pass to qualify as a candidate for admission to practise law. See Priestley eleven.Civil procedure is the process by ...
comitatus

comitatus  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A social grouping consisting of a lord and his retainers in early Germanic society. Primarily a military institution, the comitatus was bound together by a system of mutual obligations and ...
commendation

commendation  

Ceremony involving kneeling, the joining of hands, and oath-taking, which was used to formalize a relationship in which one participant was subordinated to another. Used in Carolingian times and from ...

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