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nominalism

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abstraction

abstraction  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
Supposed process of forming an idea by abstracting out what is common to a variety of instances: a process stressed, for example, by Aquinas in his moderate solution to the problem of universals ...
Albertists

Albertists  

Followers of Albertus Magnus, mentor of Thomas Aquinas. Albert had been particularly receptive to Aristotelianism, though he was also influenced by Neoplatonism. He insisted on the importance of ...
Alexander V

Alexander V  

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Religion
(c.1339–1410), Pope from 1409. Peter of Candia (Crete) became a Franciscan and lectured at Paris; from 1386 he held a succession of bishoprics. At the Council of Pisa he was unanimously elected to ...
Aureoli (Aureolus, Auriol), Petrus (Peter)

Aureoli (Aureolus, Auriol), Petrus (Peter)  

(c.1280–1322) French Franciscan theologian and author of,among other things, an influential and extensive commentary on Peter Lombard’s Sentences. He defended the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin ...
Carlstadt

Carlstadt  

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Religion
(c.1480–1541), German Reformer, so named from his birthplace. From 1505 he taught at Wittenberg. In 1518 he supported M. Luther's criticism of indulgences and in 1519 he disputed publicly with J. ...
categories

categories  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
A permanent concern of philosophers has been to discover whether the most general categories of thought, such as space, time, reality, existence, necessity, substance, property, mind, matter, states, ...
conceptualism

conceptualism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The theory of universals that sees them as shadows of our grasp of concepts. Conceptualism lies midway between out-and-out nominalism, holding that nothing is common to objects except our applying ...
contrition

contrition  

Since the council of Trent, it has been standard to group together under the term “contrition” the two movements of the soul that are sorrow for having sinned and detestation ...
Councils of Soissons

Councils of Soissons  

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Religion
The two chief Councils were those of c.1092, which condemned Roscelin for teaching tritheism, and 1121, which condemned Peter Abelard's Theologia Summi Boni.
double truth

double truth  

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Philosophy
The notion, formally condemned several times in the 13th century, that something may be false philosophically yet true theologically. The doctrine would have been an attempt to reconcile Aristotelian ...
Durandus of Saint-Pourçain

Durandus of Saint-Pourçain  

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Religion
(c.1275–1334), Dominican philosopher. He taught at Paris; in 1313 he was summoned to be Lector at the Papal Court at Avignon; later he became a bishop. He was one of the earliest exponents of what ...
essentialism

essentialism  

[Th]The idea that there are certain attitudes or emotions that are biologically inherent to human beings in general or to males or females differently. Essentialist claims are often backed up with ...
etymology

etymology  

The study of the origins and development of words and their meanings. [From Greek etymos true + logos a word]
form and matter

form and matter  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
In Aristotelian thought, the structure or nature that is imposed upon undifferentiated materia prima to make the different kinds of substance in the world. See also hylomorphism, matter.
Fredegisus (Fredegis, Fridugisus) of Tours

Fredegisus (Fredegis, Fridugisus) of Tours  

(d. 834) A pupil and favourite of Alcuin’s.In about 800, he wrote a short treatise On the Substance of Nothing and of Darkness, in which he argues that, because ...
Gabriel Biel

Gabriel Biel  

(d. 1495) Scholastic theologian.Probably the most representative figure of late medieval nominalism, Biel professed to follow William of Ockham. Influences of Duns Scotus, Thomas Aquinas, and ...
Gregory of Rimini

Gregory of Rimini  

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Philosophy
(c.1300–58)Augustinian theologian and Professor at the Sorbonne, known as Doctor Authenticus, but less flatteringly as Infantium Tortor (tormentor of children), because he held extreme views ...
Henry of Langenstein

Henry of Langenstein  

(c.1325–97) Natural philosopher, theologian, university leader.The Great Schism ended his long Parisian academic career and stimulated his conciliar writings. In Vienna (1384–97), he taught theology ...
heresy, Judaizers

heresy, Judaizers  

Diverse and perhaps falsely named ‘Jewish-thinking Novgorod heretics’, c.1470–1515. Several factors lay behind the dissent, hostilely depicted as Jewish in origin: ties with Europe, translations of ...
Jagiełłonian University

Jagiełłonian University  

Established in Cracow 1364, refounded 1400. The earlier foundation (in all faculties except theology) by King Casimir the Great was on an Italianate university model, but it did not prosper. ...

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