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Richard Milhous Nixon

(1913—1994) American Republican statesman, 37th President of the US 1969–74

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Adlai Stevenson

Adlai Stevenson  

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History
(b. Los Angeles, 5 Feb. 1900; d. London, 14 July 1965)US; Governor of Illinois 1949–53, Democratic presidential candidate 1952, 1956 Stevenson took a BA at Princeton University and an LL B at ...
Administrative State

Administrative State  

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Law
With deceptive simplicity the Constitution divides governmental power among three branches. Article I confers the legislative power on the Congress, composed of the Senate and House of ...
Air and Space Defense

Air and Space Defense  

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Recognizing that the two great oceans that had protected the United States from invasion for more than a century could now, at least in theory, be overcome through aerial assault ...
Alaska

Alaska  

Place names like Valdez and Cordova reveal that there has been a Hispanic presence in Alaska since 1791, when Spanish sailors on the famous Malaspina Expedition visited the area. In ...
Alexander Bickel

Alexander Bickel  

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Law
(b. Bucharest, Romania, 17 Dec. 1924; d. New Haven, Conn., 7 Nov. 1974), scholar and law professor.Bickel arrived in the United States with his parents in 1938. He graduated ...
Alexander Meigs Haig

Alexander Meigs Haig  

(b Philadelphia, 2 Dec. 1924; d Baltimore, 20 Feb. 2010)US; General US army 1973–9, Supreme Allied Commander Europe 1974–9, White House Chief of Staff 1973–4, Secretary of State 1981–2 Haig was ...
Alger Hiss

Alger Hiss  

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History
(1904–96) State Department official and accused spy. In 1950, Hiss was convicted of perjury, stemming from his testimony before a grand jury that he had never given a Communist courier ...
Alger Hiss Trials

Alger Hiss Trials  

(USA, 1949–50)Alger Hiss was a Harvard-educated lawyer who had worked at the highest levels for the US State Department. In 1948 he became the focus of an anti-Communist investigation under the ...
All-Volunteer Force

All-Volunteer Force  

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Term used to refer to the U.S. armed forces in general after the elimination of compulsory military service in the 1970s.
Americans for Democratic Action

Americans for Democratic Action  

(ADA) was founded in January 1947 by the liberal leadership of a World War II–era interventionist group, the Union for Democratic Action.The ADA's creation marked the culmination of a ...
Andrei Gromyko

Andrei Gromyko  

(b. Old Gromyki near Minsk, 18 July 1909; d. Moscow, 2 July 1989)Russian; Minister of Foreign Affairs 1957–85 Gromyko was born in Belorussia, the son of Russian peasants. He studied economics and ...
Anthony Hopkins

Anthony Hopkins  

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(b. Port Talbot, Wales, 31 Dec. 1937)Actor. He joined the National Theatre in 1966 and made his mark with strong physical performances in roles including Coriolanus (1971) and Macbeth ...
anticommunism

anticommunism  

Communism aims for a situation in which every individual will be free to fulfil his or her potential, and to live on an equal footing with everyone else. But its ...
arms control

arms control  

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N. international disarmament or arms limitation, especially by mutual consent.
Barry Goldwater

Barry Goldwater  

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(1909–1998), U.S. Senator, Republican presidential candidate.Born in Phoenix, Arizona, Goldwater attended Staunton Military Academy in Virginia and the University of Arizona before entering the ...
Battle of Hamburger Hill

Battle of Hamburger Hill  

(May 1969) a ten-day Vietnam War battle between U.S., South Vietnamese, and North Vietnamese forces in the A Shau Valley. North Vietnamese troops had dug into Dong Ap Bia mountain ...
Billy Graham

Billy Graham  

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Religion
1918– )US evangelist who has conducted large religious meetings throughout the world. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1983 and the Congressional Gold Medal in 1996.Born into a ...
bioethics

bioethics  

(by-oh-eth-iks)an area of applied ethics relating to moral behaviour in the life sciences. Medical ethics is now often considered a subspecialty of bioethics (biomedical ethics).
Brent Scowcroft

Brent Scowcroft  

(1925) U.S. Air Force officer and national security adviser, born in Utah. Scowcroft was educated at West Point and Columbia University, where in 1967 he received a Ph.D. in international ...
Budget and Impoundment Control Act, Congressional

Budget and Impoundment Control Act, Congressional  

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(1974)Each year the President submits a budget for the federal government, only to have Congress alter that budget to meet its own goals. “I've been around here a long ...

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