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Nicias

(c. 470—413 bc)

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Acanthus

Acanthus  

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Was a colony of Andros (Thucydides 4. 84) near the narrowest point of the Akte prong of Chalcidice and thus close to the canal dug in 480 bc on the ...
Alcibiades

Alcibiades  

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(c. 450–404 bc),Athenian general and statesman. He led the unsuccessful Athenian expeditions against Sparta and Sicily during the Peloponnesian War but fled to Sparta after being charged with ...
Ammon

Ammon  

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Greek and Roman form of the name of the Egyptian god Amun. Ammon's son is an epithet of Alexander the Great, from the story in Plutarch of Alexander's visit to the temple of Ammon in Egypt, where he ...
careers

careers  

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GreekIn Greek‐speaking areas no cursus honorum on the Roman republican model emerged. Though Thucydides (2) credited the Spartan army with a clear hierarchical command structure, promotions and ...
Cleon

Cleon  

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Athenian politician, b. c.470 bc, the son of a rich tanner. He was perhaps involved in the attacks on Pericles through his intellectual friends in the 430s, and in the opposition to Pericles' ...
Cythēra

Cythēra  

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An island off Cape Malea (Peloponnese) with murex in abundance (see purple). Perhaps c.550 bc Sparta seized it from Argos, installing a garrison and governor; its inhabitants became perioikoi. An ...
Delos

Delos  

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A small Greek island in the Aegean Sea, regarded as the centre of the Cyclades. In classical times it was considered to be sacred to Apollo, and according to legend was the birthplace of Apollo and ...
demagogue

demagogue  

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Like democracy, the idea of a demagogue has its roots in the ambiguous Greek word demos meaning ‘the people’, but in the sense of either ‘the population’ or ‘the mob’. Thus a demagogue was, even in ...
Demosthenes

Demosthenes  

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(d. 413 bc),Athenian general. After an unsuccessful invasion of Aetolia in 426 he won two brilliant victories against a Peloponnesian and Ambraciot army invading Amphilochia. In 425 his occupation of ...
eclipse

eclipse  

The partial or complete obscuration of one heavenly body by another, as perceived by an observer on one of the bodies. The proper description of an eclipse also refers to the period of time involved.
Hyperbolus

Hyperbolus  

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(d. 411 bc),5th‐cent. Athenian demagogue during and after the Archidamian War (431–421; see peloponnesian war), esp. prominent after the death of Cleon. He is sneered at in comedy for his doubtful ...
Lamachus

Lamachus  

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(d. 414 bc),Athenian general, one of the strategoi as early as c.435 and well known for his military leadership by 425, when he was caricatured as a blustering soldier in Aristophanes' Acharnians. In ...
Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian War  

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The war of 431–404bc fought between Athens and Sparta with their respective allies, occasioned largely by Spartan opposition to the Delian League. It ended in the total defeat of Athens and the ...
Phaeax

Phaeax  

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Athenian politician. First mentioned in Aristophanes Equites 1377–80; in 422 bc he was sent to Sicily in an attempt to reopen the opportunities for Athenian involvement which had been closed ...
Pylos

Pylos  

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Was the classical name of sites in Elis, Triphylia (south of Elis), and Messenia, all of which claimed to be the Pylos which is Nestor's capital in the Homeric poems; but many textual references to ...
siege Warfare

siege Warfare  

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Throughout history, the desire to capture a fortified position in order to acquire territory has generally taken precedence over battles, raids, and other military adventures, especially in ancient, ...
Stagira

Stagira  

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Town in Chalcidice and the birthplace of Aristotle; but the modern inland town of Stagira, with its statue of him, is not the ancient site, which is just off the ...
stratēgoi

stratēgoi  

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Was the ordinary term for military commanders in Greece, but in Athens in the 5th cent. bc strategoi had political as well as military importance. Little is known of the number and method of ...

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