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Nanak

(1469—1539)

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Ārtī

Ārtī  

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Hindu offering of light during pūjā (worship). It evoked from Gurū Nānak the hymn Sohilā, which remythologizes the ceremony.
Āsā kī Vār

Āsā kī Vār  

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Hymn by Gurū Nānak, including some śaloks by Gurū Aṅgad repeated daily in Sikh morning worship after Japjī.
Bābā

Bābā  

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(Pañjābī term of endearment for old man).Sikh title given to Gurū Nānak and other saintly men regardless of age.
Bālā Sandhū

Bālā Sandhū  

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Bhāī Bālā, Hindu companion of Gurū Nānak. In popular iconography he is shown fanning his master while Mardānā plays the rabāb.
bhakti

bhakti  

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(Sanskrit, worship)The devotion due to God, the blessed one (Bhagavat).
Bhāṭṛā

Bhāṭṛā  

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N. Indian pedlar community claiming brahman descent. They trace their origin to Mādho Mal of Śri Lankā, whose descendant, Chaṅgā Bhāṭṛā, reputedly became a disciple of Gurū Nānak. Many Bhāṭṛās ...
Bhaviṣya(t) Purāṇa

Bhaviṣya(t) Purāṇa  

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Classified as one of the 18 ‘great Purāṇas’ (mahāpurāṇas) in the rājasa group, i.e. those said (somewhat artificially) to relate to Brahmā, it is principally Śaiva in orientation. The Bhaviṣya ...
Bībī

Bībī  

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Honorific title for Sikh women, e.g. Bībī Nānakī, Gurū Nānak's elder sister.
caste

caste  

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[De]A form of stratification in which an individual's social position is fixed at birth and cannot be changed. There is virtually no intermarriage between the members of different caste groups.
Dharam yudh

Dharam yudh  

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(‘war of righteousness’).Sikh recognition that in some circumstances war is necessary. Gurū Nānak insisted that tyranny and injustice must be resisted, and Gurū Amar Dās told members of the ...
Garīb Dās

Garīb Dās  

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(1717–1778)A North Indian poet-saint (sant) born into a Vaiṣṇava family in the village of Chhudani in Haryana, which remains the devotional centre for his followers, the Garībdāsīs. His collection of ...
Gurpurb

Gurpurb  

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(Pañjābī, ‘rising of a Gurū’).Sikh festival associated with an event in the Gurūs' lives. The dates of Gurpurbs vary within twenty-eight days as they are lunar. In Britain, most ...
Gurū Aṅgad

Gurū Aṅgad  

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(1504–52).Second Sikh Gurū. Lehṇā (Lahaṇā) as he was originally called, a Trehaṇ Khatrī, lived at Khaḍūr, Pañjāb. His devotion to Durgā turned to loyal service of Gurū Nānak at ...
Hukam

Hukam  

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(Pāñjābī, ‘order’ from Arab.).Sikh concept of divine order. For Gurū Nānak and subsequent Sikh thinkers, hukam is a fundamental concept, recurring in the Ādi Granth and prominent in the ...
Ik Onkar

Ik Onkar  

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(Pañjābi, ‘one’; Skt., ‘sacred syllable oṃ’).Gurū Nānak's statement that God is One. Ik Onkār is the Sikhs' most frequent statement about God, emphasizing the unity of the Primal Being. ...
Janam-sākhī

Janam-sākhī  

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(Pañjābī, ‘birth-testimony, biography’).Collection of hagiographic stories about Gurū Nānak.
Japjī

Japjī  

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(Pañjābī, ‘recitation’).Major Sikh religious poem composed by Gurū Nānak. The Japjī introduces and epitomizes the Ādi Granth.
jāti

jāti  

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The word commonly translated as ‘caste’, ‘subcaste’, or ‘sub-subcaste’.
Kartārpur

Kartārpur  

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(Pañjābī, ‘abode of the Creator’).Name of two historic Sikh sites.1 Town founded by Gurū Nānak in 16th cent. ce. Kartārpur lies on the Rāvī river in Siālkoṭ district, Pakistan ...
Khatrī

Khatrī  

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(cognate, ‘Kshatriya’).A Pañjābī zāt (caste). Gurū Nānak was born to a Hindu Khatrī family and married a Khatrī wife according to caste practice. Many Khatrī Sikhs are sahajdhārī, and marriage with ...

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