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Napoleon III

(1808—1873)

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Adolphe Thiers

Adolphe Thiers  

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(1797–1877).French journalist, historian, and statesman. The only son of a modest Marseille family, educated at the lycée there and at the law faculty of Aix‐en‐Provence, he rapidly made a ...
Austro-Prussian War

Austro-Prussian War  

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(June–August 1866)A war fought between Prussia, allied with Italy, and Austria, allied with Bavaria and other, smaller German states. War had become inevitable after Bismarck challenged Austria's ...
Battle of Magenta

Battle of Magenta  

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(4 June 1859)A battle fought in Lombardy, between the French and the Sardinians on one side and the Austrians on the other. The Italian patriotic movement known as the Risorgimento had been offered ...
Battle of Sedan

Battle of Sedan  

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A battle fought in 1870 near the town of Sedan in NE France, in which the Prussian army defeated a smaller French army under Napoleon III, opening the way for a Prussian advance on Paris and marking ...
Battle of Solferino

Battle of Solferino  

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(24 June 1859)A battle fought in Lombardy, between the armies of France and Piedmont on one side and Austria on the other. Piedmont, under the leadership of Cavour, had persuaded France to give ...
Bonapartism

Bonapartism  

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Originally used to describe the regime of Napoleon Bonaparte, the term now refers more generally to autocratic, highly centralized regimes dominated by the military. Bonapartism can also include ...
Comte de MacMahon

Comte de MacMahon  

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(1808–93)French statesman. Of Irish descent, he fought successfully in the Crimea and at the battles of Magenta and Solferino in 1859. As a general in the Franco-Prussian War he was defeated at Worth ...
coup d'état

coup d'état  

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A violent and immediate seizure of state power, usually by armed forces, and with the implication of being undemocratic and unconstitutional. Successful examples occurred in Greece in 1967, Chile in ...
Crimean War

Crimean War  

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A war (1853–6) between Russia and an alliance of Great Britain, France, Sardinia, and Turkey. Russian aggression against Turkey led to war, with Turkey's European allies intervening to destroy ...
Eugénie

Eugénie  

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(1826–1920)Spanish empress of France 1853–71 and wife of Napoleon III. Throughout her husband's reign she contributed much to the brilliance of his court and was an important influence on his foreign ...
Felice Orsini

Felice Orsini  

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(1819–58)Italian revolutionary. After being implicated in revolutionary plots, he was condemned in 1844 to life imprisonment. He was later pardoned by Pius IX but took part in Italy in the ...
Foreign Legion

Foreign Legion  

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A military formation of the French army established in 1831 to fight France's colonial wars. Composed, except for the higher ranks, of non-Frenchmen, the Legion was famed for its audacity ...
Franco-Prussian War

Franco-Prussian War  

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The war of 1870–1 between France (under Napoleon III) and Prussia, in which Prussian troops advanced into France and decisively defeated the French at Sedan. The defeat marked the end of the French ...
French Mexican expedition

French Mexican expedition  

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(1861–7),an attempt to counter Protestant Anglo-Saxon influence in the Americas that gave birth to the term ‘Latin America’, and which included the battles of Puebla and Camerone, anniversaries still ...
George Sand

George Sand  

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(1804–76)Pseudonym of Aurore Dupin, baronne Dudevant, French novelist. After separating from her husband, she went to Paris in 1831 to begin an independent life as a writer. Her fame ...
German army

German army  

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A ‘German’ army did not really come into being until 1871 but the military traditions of Prussia stretched back into the 17th century. The army was instrumental in the rise ...
guards

guards  

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Forces raised to protect the monarch or head of state sometimes serving as shock troops in battle. Guards have played a political as well as a military role. After the ...
Haussmannisation

Haussmannisation  

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Name commonly given to the transformation of Paris undertaken, under the aegis of Napoleon III, by Baron Georges Haussmann (1809–91), prefect of Paris from 1853 to 1869. Under Haussmann's direction ...
horse

horse  

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N.1 cavalry: forty horse and sixty foot.2 a horizontal bar, rail, or rope in the rigging of a sailing ship for supporting something.v. (usually be horsed) provide (a person or vehicle) with a horse ...
Images d' Épinal

Images d' Épinal  

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Literature
Popular prints, often sold by itinerant pedlars [see Colportage]. They were, in fact, produced in many centres, but the town of Épinal in north‐eastern France came to specialize in them ...

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