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Mu'tazila

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Abbasid

Abbasid  

A member of a dynasty of caliphs who ruled in Baghdad from 750 to 1258, named after Abbas (566–652), the prophet Muhammad's uncle and founder of the dynasty.
ʿAbd al-Jabbār

ʿAbd al-Jabbār  

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(c.935–c.1025 (ah 322–415).A leading Muslim Muʿtazilite theologian. He wrote many books, of which the best-known is al-Mughnī fī abwāb al-tawhīd waʾl-ʿadl.
Abū Hudhaifa Wāṣil B. ‘Aṭā’

Abū Hudhaifa Wāṣil B. ‘Aṭā’  

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(699–748 (ah 80–131).Leading Muʿtazilite theologian in Islam. He belonged to the associates of Ḥasan al-Baṣrī, though he separated from his views enough to start the school of the Muʿtazilites ...
Abuʾl-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿUmar al-Zamakhshārī

Abuʾl-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿUmar al-Zamakhshārī  

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(1075–1144 (ah 467–538).Muslim grammarian and Qurʾān commentator. He was born in the Khwārizm province of N. Persia, where, apart from a period of study in Mecca, he spent most ...
al- Jāḥiẓ

al- Jāḥiẓ  

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Abū ʿUthmān ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Fuqaymī, al-Jāḥiẓ (“goggle-eyed”) was a prolific ninth-century writer of Arabic prose works (ca. ah 160–255 / 776 [or 777]–868 [or 869] ce).Possibly of black ...
al-Ash‘ari, Abu'l Hasan

al-Ash‘ari, Abu'l Hasan  

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(260–324 / 873–935)Abu'l Hasan ‘Ali b. Isma‘il al-Ash‘ari was born at Basra around 260 / 873 and died in Baghdad in 324 / 935. He was a founder of ...
al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din

al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din  

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(1149–1209)Celebrated Islamic theologian, controversialist, and polymath.
Ashʿarī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-

Ashʿarī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-  

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Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-Ashʿarī was born in Basra c.873 ce and died in Baghdad in ah935 ce He was the descendant of a famous companion of the Prophet, Abū Mūsā ...
Fiqh

Fiqh  

Conceptually, the human attempt to understand divine law (shariah). Whereas shariah is immutable and infallible, fiqh is fallible and changeable. Fiqh is distinguished from usul al-fiqh, the methods ...
Kalam

Kalam  

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(Arabic, speech)In Islamic philosophy, the processes of systematic theology, or more widely the general tradition of commentary and interpretation of Islamic doctrine, which may include adducing ...
Nasir Hamid Abu Zayd

Nasir Hamid Abu Zayd  

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Nasir Hamid Abu Zayd (b. 1943) is an Egyptianscholar whose views on the Qurʿān provoked controversy in the 1990s. He was born in a village near Tanta and during his ...
Qadar

Qadar  

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(Arab., qadara, ‘have strength for, gain mastery over’).The decree of Allāh which, in Muslim belief, determines all eventualities. The Qurʾān reiterates constantly the power of God, who is the ...
theology

theology  

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Literally the ‘science of God’. Among the Greek Fathers the word came to denote either the doctrine of the Trinity (i.e. of God's Being as opposed to His dealings with the created order) or prayer ...
theology, Muslim

theology, Muslim  

In Islam as elsewhere, dogma was the object of intense speculations and hence of intense controversies. In this field, in the Middle Ages, the fundamental opposition was not between Sunnis ...

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