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A. E. Gallatin

A. E. Gallatin  

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(1881–1952)American collector, writer on art, and painter, born into a wealthy family. His earliest collecting interests were in Aubrey Beardsley and Whistler, but in the 1920s he began buying more ...
Alessandro Mendini

Alessandro Mendini  

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(1931– )Mendini played an important role in Italian avant‐garde design of the 1970s and 1980s, particularly in association with the Milan‐based Studio Alchimia established in 1976. He was prominent ...
Alexander Calder

Alexander Calder  

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(1898–1976)US sculptor and painter, who was one of the first artists to introduce movement into sculpture through his invention of mobiles.Although his grandfather and his father were both sculptors ...
Alfred H. Barr, Jr.

Alfred H. Barr, Jr.  

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(b Detroit, 28 Jan. 1902; d Salisbury, Conn., 15 Aug. 1981).American art historian and museum administrator who played an enormously influential role in establishing an intellectual framework for the ...
Alvar Aalto

Alvar Aalto  

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(1898–1976)Finnish architect and designer, whose early neoclassical style changed in the late 1920s to the international modern, in such buildings as the Viipuri library and the MIT hall of ...
American Abstract Artists

American Abstract Artists  

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(AAA)An association of American abstract painters and sculptors formed in New York in 1936 with the aim of promoting their work and fostering public understanding of it. The association held annual ...
Anni Albers

Anni Albers  

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(1899–1994)Textile designer and weaver Anni Albers (née Fleischmann) was born in Berlin, studying at the School of Applied Art, Hamburg, from 1919 to 1920. From 1922 to 1925 she studied in the ...
Antonio Citterio

Antonio Citterio  

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(1950– )A leading Italian architect and interior, furniture, and industrial designer, Citterio explored the possibilities of new materials and technologies rather than aligning himself to the more ...
Archizoom

Archizoom  

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(established 1966)This Italian avant‐garde design studio was founded in 1966 in Florence, Italy, by four architects—Andrea Branzi, Gilberto Corretti, Paolo Deganello, Massimo Morozzi— and two ...
Artemide

Artemide  

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(established 1959)Founded in 1959 in Milan by Ernesto Gismondi and Sergio Mazza, in its early years the company moved rapidly from craft‐based to industrial design. Noted particularly for its ...
assemblage

assemblage  

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Art produced by the assembling of disparate elements, often scavenged or bought by the artist. The practice dates back to Picasso's Cubist constructions made from 1912 onwards. It was later adopted ...
Bang & Olufsen

Bang & Olufsen  

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(established 1925)Founded in 1925 by Peter Bang and Sven Olufsen this celebrated Danish manufacturer of stylish audio‐visual equipment did not place a high premium on design until 1963, when the ...
Bauhaus

Bauhaus  

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A school of applied arts established by Walter Gropius in Weimar in 1919 and noted for its refined functionalist approach to architecture and industrial design. The socialist principles on which ...
Beaumont Newhall

Beaumont Newhall  

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(1908–93).Photographic historian, curator, and photographer. He served as the Museum of Modern Art's first curator of photography and later headed the George Eastman House Museum of Photography (now ...
Ben Shahn

Ben Shahn  

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(b Kovno [now Kaunas], Lithuania, 12 Sept. 1898; d New York, 14 Mar. 1969).American painter, illustrator, photographer, designer, teacher, and writer, born in Lithuania, then part of Russia. His ...
BIB Design Consultants

BIB Design Consultants  

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(established 1967)Founded by Nick Butler (1942–2012) in London BIB has been a leading British product design consultancy for several decades. Butler, a graduate of the Royal College of Art, was ...
Borax

Borax  

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A term used by many critics of streamlined, gaudy, ephemeral—particularly American—products in the years following the Second World War. Typical of this breed was American writer‐curator Edgar ...
Braun

Braun  

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(established 1921)This German electrical and audio‐visual equipment manufacturer has for more than half a century been associated with high‐quality designs, many of which have featured prominently in ...
Cassandre

Cassandre  

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(Adolf Jean‐Marie Mouron, 1901–68)One of the most important poster designers of the 20th century, Cassandre lived in Russia until 1918, when he moved to Paris, studying at the La Grande Chaumière and ...
Charles Eames

Charles Eames  

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(1907–78)The distinguished American designer, film‐maker, and architect Charles Eames studied architecture at Washington University in St Louis in 1924. Having worked in private practice in the early ...

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