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Edvard Munch

(1863—1944) Norwegian painter and engraver

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Akseli Gallen-Kallela

Akseli Gallen-Kallela  

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(b Pori, 26 Apr. 1865; d Stockholm, 7 Mar. 1931).Finnish painter, graphic artist, designer, and architect. A major figure in the Art Nouveau and Symbolist movements, Gallen-Kallela travelled widely ...
art Nouveau

art Nouveau  

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A style of decorative art, architecture, and design prominent in western Europe and the US from about 1890 until the First World War and characterized by intricate linear designs and flowing curves ...
Christian Krohg

Christian Krohg  

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(b Aker, nr. Christiania [now Oslo], 13 Aug. 1852; d Oslo, 16 Oct. 1925).Norwegian painter, active mainly in Christiania/Oslo, although he had a lengthy stay in Paris from 1902 to 1909. He took his ...
Czech art

Czech art  

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Strictly, the term should refer to art and sculpture produced after 1918, when the independent Republic of Czechoslovakia was founded. However, the arts in the 19th century already manifest ...
decadence

decadence  

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A general word for a decline in cultural standards that was adopted to name an aesthetic style that emerged in the latter part of the 19th century in Europe. In the first instance decadence was, in ...
Die Brücke

Die Brücke  

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Group of German Expressionist artists founded in Dresden in 1905 and disbanded in Berlin in 1913. The founders were four architecture students at the Dresden Technical School: Fritz Bleyl ...
Egon Schiele

Egon Schiele  

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(1890–1918)Austrian painter.Schiele joined the Vienna Academy of Art in 1906 but left in 1909 because his teacher disapproved of his paintings, which were influenced by the art nouveau artist Gustav ...
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner  

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(1880–1938)German expressionist painter who was the dominant personality in the Brücke group.A compulsive draughtsman from childhood, Kirchner became a full-time artist in 1905 after studying ...
Ernst Wilhelm Nay

Ernst Wilhelm Nay  

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(1902–68)German painter, born in Berlin, where he trained at the Academy under Hofer, 1925–8. He visited Paris in 1928 and Rome in 1930, but more significant for his work was a trip to Norway (as a ...
expressionism

expressionism  

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A style of painting, music, or drama in which the artist or writer seeks to express emotional experience rather than impressions of the external world. Expressionists characteristically reject ...
Group of Plastic Artists

Group of Plastic Artists  

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A splinter group of progressive Czech artists that broke away from the Mánes Union in Prague in 1911 and flourished up to the First World War. The leading members of the group were Vincenc Beneš ...
Jasper Johns

Jasper Johns  

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(1930– )US painter, sculptor, and printmaker, who was a forerunner of pop art. He was awarded the USA's National Medal of the Arts in 1990.Johns was brought up in South Carolina and attended the ...
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff

Karl Schmidt-Rottluff  

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(b Rottluff, nr. Chemnitz, 1 Dec. 1884; d West Berlin, 10 Aug. 1976).German Expressionist painter, printmaker, and sculptor, born Karl Schmidt; he added ‘Rottluff’ to his name, from his ...
Mánes Union of Artists

Mánes Union of Artists  

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An association of artists in Prague, analogous to the Salon d'Automne in Paris, largely responsible for introducing progressive trends to Czech art in the early years of the 20th century. It was ...
nude photography

nude photography  

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To 1920It seems likely, though not absolutely certain, that the first nude photograph was taken almost immediately after the medium was born. At all events, the optician Nicolas Lerebours ...
Paul Gauguin

Paul Gauguin  

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(b Paris, 7 June 1848; d Atuona, Marquesas Islands, 8 May 1903).French painter, printmaker, sculptor, and ceramicist, with Cézanne and van Gogh the greatest of the Post-Impressionists and like them a ...
Richard Gerstl

Richard Gerstl  

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(b Vienna, 14 Sept. 1883; d Vienna, 4 Nov. 1908).Austrian painter. His early painting was in the style of the Vienna Sezession, but by 1905 he had developed a highly personal type of Expressionism. ...
Scandinavian art

Scandinavian art  

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1. IntroductionThe earliest surviving art in Scandinavia is prehistoric rock carving, for example carving from Tanum, Bohuslan, Sweden. A number of picture stones from the 8th to the 12th ...
Sonderbund

Sonderbund  

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An organization founded in Düsseldorf in 1909 to mount exhibitions of contemporary art; the full name was Sonderbund Westdeutscher Kunstfreunder und Künstler (Special League—or Federation—of ...
symbolism

symbolism  

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An artistic and poetic movement or style using symbolic images and indirect suggestion to express mystical ideas, emotions, and states of mind. It originated in late 19th century France and Belgium, ...

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