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Muhammad

(c. 570—632)

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Abbasid

Abbasid  

A member of a dynasty of caliphs who ruled in Baghdad from 750 to 1258, named after Abbas (566–652), the prophet Muhammad's uncle and founder of the dynasty.
ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Jīlī

ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Jīlī  

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(c.1365/6–c.1412 (ah 767–815).A Muslim mystic who was a follower of Ibn al-ʿArabī's system and wrote the Sūfī treatise Al-Insān al-Kāmil (The Perfect Man), dealing with cosmic, metaphysical, and ...
Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim  

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(d. ca. 578)Muhammad's grandfather. Cared for Muhammad after the deaths of his parents. Died when Muhammad was eight. Credited by hadith with receiving a command from God to dig up the well of ...
Abu Bakr

Abu Bakr  

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(c. 573–634)First caliph of Islam (632–34). He was one of the earliest converts to Islam and a close companion of the Prophet Muhammad, who married his daughter Aisha. When he succeeded to Muhammad's ...
Abū Huraira

Abū Huraira  

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(d. 676–8 (ah 57 or 58).Companion of the Prophet Muḥammad, and prolific transmitter of Ḥadīth: nearly 3,500 ḥadīth have come down from him.
Abū Ṭālib

Abū Ṭālib  

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(d. ca. 619)Muhammad's uncle, protector, and guardian after the death of his parents. According to tradition, he was present when Muhammad was recognized as a prophet by the Christian monk Bahira. ...
Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah

Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah  

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(d. 639)Companion of the Prophet and one of the ten to whom paradise was promised by him. Played an important role in the election of Abu Bakr as Muhammad's successor, and later led military ...
Aga Khan

Aga Khan  

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The spiritual leader of the Khoja branch of Ismalian Muslims. The first Aga Khan was given his title in 1818 by the shah of Persia and subsequently moved with the majority of the Nizaris to the ...
Ahl al-Bayt

Ahl al-Bayt  

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People of the house, or Muhammad's family and descendants. Shiis are particularly devoted to the Prophet's family, believing that they embody special holiness, spiritual power, and knowledge due to ...
Ahl al-Suffa

Ahl al-Suffa  

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A group of poor Muslims, who were given permission by the Prophet Muḥammad to live in a corner of the Madīna mosque. Later generation of Muslims, especially the Sūfīs, venerated ...
Ahl-i Hadith

Ahl-i Hadith  

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Offshoot of nineteenth-century Indian Tariqah-i Muhammadiyyah movement. Tied to the tradition of Shah Wali Allah and the eighteenth-century Wahhabi movement. Favors direct use of Islamic sources and ...
Aḥmad al-Tijānī

Aḥmad al-Tijānī  

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(1737–1815).Founder of the African Sūfī order, the Tijāniya. He was born in Algeria, and early in life joined several Sūfī orders before withdrawing for five years to a remote ...
Ahmadis

Ahmadis  

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Controversial messianic movement founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian, Punjab (British-controlled India), in 1889. Founder claimed to be a “nonlegislating” prophet (thus not in opposition to the ...
Aisha (Aishah)

Aisha (Aishah)  

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Daughter of first caliph, Abu Bakr; youngest and reputedly favorite wife of Muhammad. With Muhammad when he died. Renowned for knowledge of medicine, history, and rhetoric. Important transmitter of ...
al- Abbas

al- Abbas  

(c.567–c.653)*Muhammad’s uncle; a merchant who accepted Islam and joined in the conquest of Mecca (630). The Abbasid caliphal dynasty, which took its name from him, claimed descent from his son Abd ...
al- Hasan

al- Hasan  

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(d. 669)Muhammad's grandson, oldest son of Ali and Fatimah, and second imam in the Shii tradition. Forced by Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan to abdicate the role of caliph in his favor. After his abdication, ...
al- Ḥudaybīyah

al- Ḥudaybīyah  

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The Treaty of Hudaybīyah, signed in March of 628 ce, was a ten-year armistice between Muḥammad and his Meccan adversary, the Quraysh tribe, allowing Muslims to make the pilgrimage to ...
al- Madīna

al- Madīna  

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Yathrib, ‘the town’ to which Muḥammad made the hijra at the invitation of its inhabitants. It is situated in the Ḥijāz, and is the place where the earliest organized forms ...
al- Masjid al-Aqsa

al- Masjid al-Aqsa  

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The Muslim mosque built in the 7th cent. ce, on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem (al-Quds). It is the mosque associated with the Night Journey (isrāʾ) and the Ascent (miʿrāj) ...
al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib  

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(d. 652–3 (ah 32).An uncle of the Prophet Muḥammad. The ʿAbbāsid dynasty took its name from him, being descended from his son.

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