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Robert Morris

(b. 1931)

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anti-form

anti-form  

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A term, originating in the late 1960s, applied to certain types of works that react against traditional forms, materials, and methods of artistic creation—*Arte Povera, Land art, some kinds of ...
Art of the Real

Art of the Real  

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A term applied to a broad trend in American art in the 1950s and 1960s in which works of art were presented as irrefutable physical objects making no attempt at representation and no allusion to the ...
Art Workers' Coalition

Art Workers' Coalition  

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(AWC)A short-lived association of art activists founded in New York in 1969. One of the founders, Carl Andre, explained that the term ‘art worker’ was chosen in preference to ‘artist’ because it ...
Arte Povera

Arte Povera  

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An artistic movement that originated in Italy in the 1960s, combining aspects of conceptual, minimalist, and performance art, and making use of worthless or common materials such as earth or ...
Arts and Crafts Movement

Arts and Crafts Movement  

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An English decorative arts movement of the second half of the 19th century which sought to revive the ideal of craftsmanship in an age of increasing mechanization and mass production. William Morris ...
Barry Flanagan

Barry Flanagan  

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(1941–2009)British sculptor, draughtsman, and printmaker, born in Prestatyn, Wales. He studied at various art schools, principally St Martin's School of Art, London, 1964–6, his main teacher there ...
Conceptual art

Conceptual art  

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A type of art in which the idea or ideas that a work represents are considered its essential component and the finished ‘product’, if it exists at all, is regarded primarily as a form of ...
Donald Judd

Donald Judd  

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(b Excelsior Springs, Mo., 3 June 1928; d New York, 12 Feb. 1994).American sculptor, designer, and writer on art, one of the leading exponents of Minimal art. From 1959 to 1965 he earned his living ...
Earthworks

Earthworks  

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Vast environments constructed of earth, or markings on it, made from the late 1960s to the early 1970s. The largely young, male New York sculptors who created them extended Minimalism's ...
Eva Hesse

Eva Hesse  

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(1936–70).Sculptor and painter. Among the most innovative and influential artists of the late 1960s, she infused minimalism with expressive and allusive powers while maintaining its formal and ...
Ford Madox Brown

Ford Madox Brown  

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(b Calais, 16 Apr. 1821; d London, 6 Oct. 1893).English painter. The son of a retired ship’s purser, he spent his early life on the Continent; his training included ...
formalism

formalism  

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Literature
Alleged fault in comp. by Soviet Union composers for which Prokofiev, Shostakovich, and others were officially criticized, esp. in 1948. The criticism is of too much intellectual emphasis on form as ...
installation

installation  

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A term that can be applied very generally to the disposition of objects in an exhibition (the hanging of paintings, the arrangement of sculptures, and so on), but which also has the more specific ...
Janine Antoni

Janine Antoni  

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(1964– )American sculptor, born in the Bahamas. She has made sculpture out of food. Gnaw (1992, MoMA, New York) consists of three 600 pound cubes of lard and chocolate which she had nibbled herself. ...
Joan Jonas

Joan Jonas  

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(1936– )American Performance and Video artist, born in New York. She studied art history, sculpture, and drawing. While working as a gallery secretary she saw Happenings by Claes Oldenburg and ...
Lee Lozano

Lee Lozano  

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(1930–99)American artist born as Leonore Knaster in Newark, New Jersey. She studied at the Art Institute of Chicago from 1957 to 1959. She took the name of her husband, an architect and designer, ...
Leo Castelli

Leo Castelli  

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(b Trieste, 4 Sept. 1907; d New York, 21 Aug. 1999).Italian-born American art dealer. He settled in New York in the late 1940s and originally sold modern European works, acquired mainly through ...
Lynda Benglis

Lynda Benglis  

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(1941– )American sculptor, born in Lake Charles, Louisiana. She was one of the relatively small number of women artists who received mainstream recognition in the 1960s and 1970s. Her sculptures in ...
Max Bill

Max Bill  

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(1908–94).Swiss architect who trained at the Dessau Bauhaus (1927–9) and designed many timber houses in the 1940s, but who also revived the Bauhaus programme at the Hochschule für Gestaltung (High ...
Minimal art

Minimal art  

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A type of abstract art, particularly sculpture, characterized by extreme simplicity of form and a deliberate lack of expressive content; it emerged as a trend in the 1950s and flourished particularly ...

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