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active life

active life  

As distinguished from the ‘contemplative life’, the ‘active life’ means (1) the cultivation of the Christian virtues and (2) a life devoted to Christian works, esp. works of fraternal charity ...
Alexis of Moscow

Alexis of Moscow  

(died 1378)Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus' (1354–1378), of Russian origin, and residing like his two predecessors at Moscow, St Alexis worked to strengthen the Church. He favoured monasticism ...
anchorite

anchorite  

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Religion
(m.),( f.).A person who withdraws from the world to live a solitary life of silence, prayer, and mortification. The word is used especially of one who lives in confined quarters (his or her ‘cell’).
Anjou

Anjou  

A former province of western France, on the Loire. It was an English possession from 1154, when it was inherited by Henry II as count of Anjou, until 1204, when it was lost to France by King John; it ...
Apophthegmata Patrum

Apophthegmata Patrum  

Collections of sayings of, or brief stories about, Egyptian monks, known in English as ‘Sayings of the Desert Fathers’. The material dates from the 4th–5th cents. and vividly conveys the spirit of ...
apostolic life

apostolic life  

Religious life based on the model of the Apostles. Associated with monks, who claimed the Apostles were the first monks, it was adopted by heretics around the year 1000. In ...
Armenian Church

Armenian Church  

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Religion
An independent Christian Church established in Armenia since c.300 and influenced by Roman and Byzantine as well as Syrian traditions. A small Armenian Catholic Church also exists (see Uniate).
art and architecture: Cistercian

art and architecture: Cistercian  

The Cistercian order was founded in 1098 at Cîteaux, in Burgundy, by a group of monks who had left a reformed but traditional Benedictine monastery in hope of living a ...
art and architecture: Georgian

art and architecture: Georgian  

The roots of ecclesiastical building activity in art and architecture in Georgia may be traced to the declaration of Christianity as the official religion in the 320s during the reign ...
art and architecture: Insular

art and architecture: Insular  

The term ‘Insular’ refers to the cultures of the British Isles from the mid 6th through the late 9th centuries, sometimes called ‘Northumbro-Irish’ to suggest the two main zones of ...
art and architecture: Norman

art and architecture: Norman  

1. Historical context2. Architecture in France3. Architecture in England4. Normans in Sicily and southern Italy5. MS illumination1. Historical context2. Architecture in France3. Architecture in ...
art and architecture: Romanesque

art and architecture: Romanesque  

Term describing art produced in Europe between roughly 1000 and 1200.1. Definition2. Architecture3. Monumental decoration4. Portable arts5. Secular and military works6. Artists and aesthetics1. ...
asceticism

asceticism  

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Religion
The practice of severe self-discipline and abstention from all forms of indulgence, typically for religious reasons. The term comes (in the mid 17th century, via medieval Latin or Greek) from Greek ...
Athos

Athos  

100 kilometres south-east of Thessalonica, Athos forms the easternmost of the three peninsulas that prolong Chalcidike southwards, as well as the most mountainous and least accessible. It is a vast ...
Augustine of Hippo, Rule of St

Augustine of Hippo, Rule of St  

A monastic Rule which exists in three main forms, two for men and one for women; their relationship is disputed. As there is no reference to a rule in St Augustine's Retractationes, his authorship ...
Basil, St, ‘the Great’

Basil, St, ‘the Great’  

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Religion
(c.330–79 [or possibly slightly earlier]), one of the three Cappadocian Fathers. The brother of St Gregory of Nyssa, he settled as a hermit near Neocaesarea in 358; he left his retirement only when ...
Bavaria

Bavaria  

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History
A south German duchy ruled by the Wittelsbach family (see Appendix 1) from 1180 to 1918. From 1253 to 1504 the duchy was repeatedly partitioned, initially into Upper Bavaria and ...
Beloozero

Beloozero  

The White Lake, situated about 500 kilometres north of Moscow, gave its name to a region of forest and swamp which was erected into a principality from 1238 to 1485 ...
Benedictine

Benedictine  

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History
A monk or nun of an order following the rule of St Benedict. From the original Benedictine foundations at Subiaco and Monte Cassino in Italy the number of monastic houses in Europe grew to many ...
building materials

building materials  

GreekIn its developed stages Greek architecture was based on the use of finely dressed stone masonry, mainly limestone. Where available, white marble was used for the finest structures. Transport ...

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