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abstraction

abstraction  

The selection and conceptualization of a phenomenon, or some aspect of it; a way of viewing a real world object, usually a simplification—such as a model. Data abstraction captures the essential ...
analogy

analogy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
A respect in which one thing is similar to another. The analogical extension of terms is the way in which a term covers similar things: people, bottles, and rivers have mouths. Shops, boxes, ...
analytical model

analytical model  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Formal mathematical model used to derive a theoretical or ‘fair value’ of an asset, security, or instrument. Because the model uses an equilibrium or arbitrage-free condition to derive the price ...
arbitrage pricing theory

arbitrage pricing theory  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The expected returns and prices for financial assets can be modelled as linear functions of multiple factors, especially macroeconomic risk factors. See also pricing.
archetype

archetype  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
An original which has been imitated; (in Jungian theory) a primitive mental image inherited from the earliest human ancestors, and supposed to be present in the collective unconscious.
base and superstructure

base and superstructure  

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Overview Page
Karl Marx's metaphor for the relationship between material production and economic relations (the base) and the political, legal, and cultural dimensions of society (the superstructure). Marx's key ...
baseline

baseline  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A projection of how the economy will develop if existing trends and policies continue unchanged. Models of the economy may be based on theory, econometrics, or some combination of these. Before it is ...
cartography

cartography  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The science and craft of drawing maps and charts; on the latter, see charts and chart-making. In Babylonian and Greek antiquity the world was thought to be a disc surrounded ...
cellular automaton

cellular automaton  

A mathematical model of self-replication and destruction, usually represented by a checkerboard of either fixed or infinite dimensions, each cell of which has a finite number of states, usually ...
computer model

computer model  

A model of a complex environmental system that is based on known mathematical relationships between system components and uses a computer to do the complicated modelling, usually in order to predict ...
conduit metaphor

conduit metaphor  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
A metaphor underlying everyday references to communication, identified in 1979 by Michael Reddy, an American linguist, reflecting the notions that: language functions like a conduit transferring ...
construct

construct  

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Overview Page
(n.) A term used in behavioral sciences to describe a conceptual framework or theory, often called a social construct, based on observations, empirically verifiable facts or events.
context factors

context factors  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
In models of communication or persuasion, specific variables associated with a specific context of reception that research has identified as among those that can affect the effectiveness of the ...
decision analysis

decision analysis  

A system of logic that uses elements of game theory and operational research to identify and quantify all available choices and their outcomes at each stage in designing a plan for preventive or ...
deviance

deviance  

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Overview Page
Behaviours, attitudes, and demeanours that differ significantly from the norms, standards, ethics, and expectations of society and are often classed as criminal or anti‐social.
duality

duality  

A property of an optimization problem. Duality relates any linear maximization problem to an equivalent minimization problem. For example, with non-negative x-variables and y-variables, the maximum ...
education, architectural

education, architectural  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In ancient cultures, learning about architecture was a practice like most other craft-based disciplines. A young person, male or female, could learn about shelter-making traditions that were ...
encoding/decoding model

encoding/decoding model  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. (semiotic model) Any model representing communication as a process of encoding and decoding messages. In information theory, the coding involved is a technical process, but semioticians underline ...
environmental information system

environmental information system  

(EIS)The storage and analysis of environmental data using a computer, which might include use of geographical information systems (GIS), remote sensing, and simulation, which make it much easier to ...
error variable

error variable  

In statistics, any variable defined by the difference between observed scores and values predicted by a model.

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