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mitochondrial-DNA

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aerobic respiration

aerobic respiration  

A type of cellular respiration in which foodstuffs (carbohydrates) are completely oxidized by atmospheric oxygen, with the production of maximum chemical energy from the foodstuffs.
Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease  

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The most common form of dementia, occurring in middle age or later. It is characterized by memory impairment and, as the disease progresses, language difficulties, apraxia, and visuospatial problems. ...
cell

cell  

1 The fundamental autonomous unit of plant and animal bodies, consisting of, at least, a cell membrane containing cytoplasm and nuclear material, but often having a more complex structure. Simple ...
cytoplasm

cytoplasm  

The material surrounding the nucleus of a cell. It consists of a matrix (see cytosol) in which the cell's organelles are suspended. The cytoplasm may be differentiated into dense outer ectoplasm, ...
cytoplasmic inheritance

cytoplasmic inheritance  

The inheritance of characters controlled by genes present in the cell cytoplasm rather than by genes on the chromosomes in the cell nucleus. An example of cytoplasmic inheritance is that controlled ...
DNA

DNA  

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(deoxyribonucleic acid)The genetic material of most living organisms, which is a major constituent of the chromosomes within the cell nucleus and plays a central role in the determination of ...
Dolly a sheep (q.v.)

Dolly a sheep (q.v.)  

Born in Scotland in 1996 and the first mammal to be experimentally cloned. This was done by fusing the nucleus of an adult somatic cell from one sheep with an enucleated egg from another, followed by ...
electron transport chain

electron transport chain  

A system of electron carriers, present in mitochondria and the cell membranes of prokaryotes, which sequentially transport electrons and/or protons previously removed from metabolites in glycolysis, ...
endosymbiotic hypothesis

endosymbiotic hypothesis  

The hypothesis that the plastid and mitochondrial organelles evolved from prokaryotic endosymbionts within eukaryotic cells early in eukaryotic evolution. At least two endosymbiotic events are ...
eukaryote

eukaryote  

An organism consisting of cells in which the genetic material is contained within a distinct nucleus. All organisms except bacteria are eukaryotes. See Eukarya. Compare prokaryote.
Eve

Eve  

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Religion
Arabic Hawwa. Wife of Adam. She is not named in the Quran; her name is known through oral tradition (hadith). Unlike the Old Testament, the Quran does not present her as responsible for tempting ...
evolutionary clock

evolutionary clock  

The accumulation of changes in non-genetic stretches or introns of (especially) mitochondrial DNA that occur at a fairly constant rate and can be calibrated with real time to enable estimates to be ...
extranuclear genes

extranuclear genes  

Genes included in the DNA present in organelles other than the nucleus, such as the mitochondria and chloroplasts, some of which code for the synthesis of proteins. The DNA of these organelles is ...
free radical

free radical  

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An atom or group of atoms with an unpaired valence electron. Free radicals are formed when a bond is broken without forming ions. Because of their unpaired electrons, most free radicals are extremely ...
genetic code

genetic code  

The set of correspondences between base (nucleotide pair) triplets in DNA and amino acids in protein. These base triplets carry the genetic information for protein synthesis (see ribosome). For ...
genetic fingerprinting

genetic fingerprinting  

A technique for establishing an individual's identity, for determining possible genetic relationships with other individuals, or for linking a suspected criminal to a crime scene where a sample of ...
genome

genome  

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All the genes contained in a single set of chromosomes, i.e. in a haploid nucleus. Each parent, through its reproductive cells, contributes its genome to its offspring.
glottochronology

glottochronology  

The application of techniques of lexicostatistics to study the evolution and establish the relationship between languages and therefore populations and to estimate how long ago they diverged from ...
glycolate cycle

glycolate cycle  

A complex metabolic pathway, parts of which occur in the chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes of plant cells. Its principal function is thought to be the forma-tion of the amino acids serine ...
heteroplasmy

heteroplasmy  

The presence of more than one type of mitochondrial DNA in a cell. A mutant mitochondrial DNA may be present in varying amounts so that phenotypic variation between cells is possible.[...]

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