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John Stuart Mill

(1806—1873) philosopher, economist, and advocate of women's rights

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Abraham Hayward

Abraham Hayward  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1801–84)Essayist, educated at Blundell School, Tiverton. He was called to the bar in 1832. Author of The Art of Dining (1852), his gastronomic dinners in his chambers were famous ...
action

action  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
What an agent does, as opposed to what happens to an agent (or even what happens inside an agent's head). Describing events that happen does not of itself permit us to talk of rationality and ...
Alan John Mitchell Milne

Alan John Mitchell Milne  

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Philosophy
(1922–88)Alan Milne was born in the Wycombe district of Buckinghamshire on 30 April 1922 and died in Oxford on 24 May 1988. He joined the army directly from Uppingham ...
Alexander Bain

Alexander Bain  

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Philosophy
(1818–1903)Scottish philosopher. The self-taught son of a weaver, Bain eventually enrolled in Marischal College, in Aberdeen, and became a radical follower of J. S. Mill. He was appointed professor ...
Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis de Tocqueville  

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(1805–59)An early French sociologist who travelled to the United States between 1831 and 1832 to observe democracy at work. His classic work Democracy in America (1835–40) identifies within ...
Alfred Marshall

Alfred Marshall  

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(1842–1924)British economist, regarded as one of the founders of the neoclassical school in economics.Marshall was born in London and graduated in mathematics from St John's College, Cambridge. He ...
Annals of the Parish

Annals of the Parish  

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Overview Page
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Literature
A novel by J. Galt, published 1821. The Revd Michael Balwhidder chronicles in some detail the social and economic changes affecting the people of the town of Dalmailing in Ayrshire during the period ...
Anthony Quinton

Anthony Quinton  

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Philosophy
(1925–2010).British philosopher, based in Oxford and member of the House of Lords, who wrote on political philosophy, ethics and metaphysics, the philosophy of mind, and a variety of historical ...
Antony Garrard Newton Flew

Antony Garrard Newton Flew  

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Subject:
Philosophy
(1923–)Antony Flew was born on 11 February 1923 in Ealing, London, England. He attended St. Faith’s Preparatory School, Kingswood School, and St. John’s College, Oxford, where he earned a ...
applied ethics

applied ethics  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The subject that applies ethics to actual practical problems, such as those of abortion, euthanasia, the treatment of animals, or other environmental, legal, political, and social problems. See also ...
Arnold Toynbee

Arnold Toynbee  

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Philosophy
(1852–83)Arnold Toynbee was born in Savile Row, London on 23 August 1852 and died in Wimbledon on 9 March 1883. Two unexpected events shaped his formative years and later ...
association of ideas

association of ideas  

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Subject:
Philosophy
(in psychology) linkage of one idea to another in a regular way according to their meaning. See also free association.
associationism

associationism  

A psychological doctrine concerning the attraction between mental elements or ideas, first suggested in a chapter entitled ‘Of the Association of Ideas’ that the English empiricist philosopher John ...
atheism

atheism  

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Religion
The theory or belief that God does not exist. The word comes (in the late 16th century, via French) from Greek atheos, from a- ‘without’ + theos ‘god’.
Athenaeum

Athenaeum  

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Literature
(1828–1921),J. S. Buckingham's literary review. The founder wished the journal to become the resort of thinkers, poets, orators, and other writers. Dilke was editor 1830–46, and the list of ...
Athenaeum club

Athenaeum club  

A London club, founded in 1824 for men of intellectual distinction, to which Dickens was elected at the unusually early age of 26. Among the members were many, like Dickens ...
Auguste Comte

Auguste Comte  

(1798 –1857)A French philosopher who, with Claude-Henri Saint-Simon, founded positivism as a philosophy of science, an ideology of progress, and a humanist religion. Comte also coined the term ...
Baconianism

Baconianism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Baconianism is a philosophical framework that derives from the thought of the seventeenth-century scholar Francis Bacon. Baconianism is not characterized by adherence to specific scientific theories, ...
balanced growth

balanced growth  

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In macroeconomics, the growth of output and capital stock at the same rate.
ballot

ballot  

Secret voting; a vote conducted by this method. Voting by dropping a pebble (psephos—hence psephology) into an urn was an invention of ancient Greek democrats, resurrected in the eighteenth century. ...

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