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Adalbero of Laon

Adalbero of Laon  

(c.947–1030)Politically active bishop of Laon (r. 977–1030). Adalbero is notorious for betraying Charles of Lorraine, the last Carolingian claimant to the throne, whom he turned over to Hugh Capet ...
Amalarius of Metz

Amalarius of Metz  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(died after 850)The Carolingian liturgist and theologian Amalarius of Metz was a pupil of Alcuin at Tours before being appointed archbishop of Trier in 811. During Agobard's exile (c.834), he was ...
annals

annals  

(from Latin annus, ‘year’) The yearly records kept by the priests in Rome from the earliest times. They noted ceremonies, state enactments, and the holders of office. The high priest (Pontifex ...
art and architecture: Carolingian

art and architecture: Carolingian  

Literally, art and architecture produced in areas ruled by a monarch of the Carolingian dynasty. Geographically, while borders were somewhat fluid, this usually included western Germany, the Low ...
Austrasia

Austrasia  

Eastern kingdom of the Rhineland (‘Ripuarian’) Franks, in what today is northeastern France, western Germany, Belgium, and Luxembourg. In the early 6th century the Merovingian king Clovis I ...
canon

canon  

Reference type:
Overview Page
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Religion
Originally (in the Roman Catholic Church), a member of certain orders of clergy that live communally according to an ecclesiastical rule in the same way as monks (also as canon regular or regular ...
Carolingians

Carolingians  

The Carolingian family left its direct mark on history from the early 7th c. until 987. In a first stage, it had acquired the political responsibilities that gradually made it ...
cathedral

cathedral  

The principal church of a diocese, with which the bishop is officially associated. Recorded from Middle English (as an adjective, the noun being short for cathedral church ‘the church which contains ...
Charles IV

Charles IV  

(1316–78) King of Bohemia and German emperor.The eldest son of John of Luxembourg and Elisabeth Přemyslovna, he made Bohemia a major centre of European culture. During his reign Prague ...
choir

choir  

Reference type:
Overview Page
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History
or1 Part of a large church appropriated for the singers, with stalls, situated to the liturgical east of the nave, and partially screened.2 In a cruciform church that part east of the crossing, ...
choir school

choir school  

Choir schools arose out of the scholae lectorum that, from the late Empire, employed very young children for the Readings and for singing the Psalms. In the 4th c., the ...
Cistercian chant

Cistercian chant  

The founders believed that liturgical innovation upset the traditional monastic balance amongst ceremony, labour, and study. Excising what were regarded as non-authentic hymns, they replaced ...
counts of Ardennes

counts of Ardennes  

This four-generation line, descending from Wigericus (d. 916/19) and Kunigunde and ending with Gozelo c.1028, held a countship based on the old Carolingian pagus of Ardennes and the advocacy of ...
education, schools of law

education, schools of law  

The first school of law in Bologna (12th century) became the major centre for legal studies for centuries ahead. Its beginnings are associated with Irnerius, whose knowledge of Roman law ...
Entry Into Jerusalem

Entry Into Jerusalem  

Celebrated on Palm Sunday, Christ's Entry marks the beginning of his Passion (Mt 21:1–11, Mk 11:1–10, Lk 19:29–40, Jn 12:12–19). Its imagery shifted with shifting interpretations of the Passion. On ...
False Decretals

False Decretals  

Reference type:
Overview Page
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Religion
A collection of canon law documents ascribed to ‘Isidore Mercator’ but really compiled c.850, probably in France. In its fullest form it contains three sections, the second and third of which are ...
Florus

Florus  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. c.860), deacon of Lyons and a canon of the cathedral church. When Amalarius tried to make changes in the liturgy, Florus attacked him in a number of works, including the Expositio Missae. In the ...
free cities

free cities  

Formed a privileged category in Rome's system of provincial government. In the east the status ultimately derived from the blanket declaration of Greek freedom by Quinctius Flamininus (196 bc); by ...
Golden Bull

Golden Bull  

(of Charles IV) (1356) Promulgated at the imperial diets of Nuremberg and Metz. It regulated the process of election of the king of the Romans, by majority vote. The seven ...
Gorze

Gorze  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A monastery near Metz, founded in 748 by St Chrodegang. After difficulties in the 9th cent., it was revived and built up by Adalbero I, Bp. of Metz (929–62), and became a centre of monastic reform. ...

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