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Aleppo

Aleppo  

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An ancient city in northern Syria, which was formerly an important commercial centre on the trade route between the Mediterranean and the countries of the East.
Aqqoyunlu

Aqqoyunlu  

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Islamic dynasty that ruled in eastern Anatolia, Iran and Iraq from 1378 to 1508. The Aqqoyunlu (Turk.: “White Sheep”) were a group of Sunni Turkmen that rose to power by ...
architecture

architecture  

The term given to an organization's information technology platform, structure and process but increasingly used as a way of explaining complex marketing concepts and functions, for example ‘brand ...
arms and armour

arms and armour  

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History
Personal weapons and protective clothing used in combat or for ceremonial purposes, regarded as objects of beauty as well as of practical use. In Europe armourers have invariably been workers in ...
art and architecture: Abbasid

art and architecture: Abbasid  

The Abbasid caliphate (750–1258) is the second Islamic dynasty. The Abbasids succeeded the Damascus-based Umayyad dynasty (661–750) and moved the focal point of the Islamic political and cultural ...
art and architecture: Almoravid

art and architecture: Almoravid  

The Almoravids (al-Murabitun in Arabic) ruled Morocco and al-Andalus (Muslim Spain) between c.1062 and 1150. Due to the Almoravids’ adherence to the conservative Malikite school of Islamic law, their ...
art and architecture: Angevin

art and architecture: Angevin  

(in Italy) The ruling family of Sicily and southern Italy, 1266–1414, known as Angevins after their place of origin, Anjou (France). Angevin rule on the whole, however, did not represent ...
art and architecture: Arabic

art and architecture: Arabic  

With the spread of Islam from the Arabian Peninsula westward across North Africa and into Spain in the century following the death of the prophet Muhammad in 630, new forms ...
art and architecture: Ayyubid

art and architecture: Ayyubid  

The Ayyubid dynasty ruled in Egypt between 1171–1250, in Syria and southeast Anatolia between 1180–1260, and in the Yemen between 1174–1229. The dynasty was established in 1169 by the Kurdish ...
art and architecture: Bulgarian

art and architecture: Bulgarian  

Over most of its history, the medieval Bulgarian state covered the territory of the modern republics of Bulgaria and Macedonia. While outstanding monuments of Byzantine art are found there in ...
art and architecture: Carolingian

art and architecture: Carolingian  

Literally, art and architecture produced in areas ruled by a monarch of the Carolingian dynasty. Geographically, while borders were somewhat fluid, this usually included western Germany, the Low ...
art and architecture: Georgian

art and architecture: Georgian  

The roots of ecclesiastical building activity in art and architecture in Georgia may be traced to the declaration of Christianity as the official religion in the 320s during the reign ...
art and architecture: Islamic

art and architecture: Islamic  

The term Islamic as it is often applied to art and architecture describes the art and architecture created for the service of Islam as well as secular art and architecture ...
art and architecture: Mamluk

art and architecture: Mamluk  

(1250–1517)Military slaves of Turkish descent who ruled Egypt, Syria, and Palestine. They are considered among the greatest patrons of the arts in the history of Islam, and the cities ...
art and architecture: Mosan

art and architecture: Mosan  

A regional ‘school’ of medieval art centred in the diocese of Liège on the Meuse river in eastern Belgium. Between the 11th and 13th centuries this French-speaking part of the ...
art and architecture: Ottonian

art and architecture: Ottonian  

As befits a term derived from the political sphere, Ottonian art and architecture refers to those buildings and works of art produced in the Germanic lands (and surrounding areas) that ...
art and architecture: Scandinavian

art and architecture: Scandinavian  

Medieval art in Scandinavia, c.775–1550, represents eight centuries of highly diverse crafts, techniques, functions, and aesthetics, and the development can be traced in a constantly changing pattern ...
art and architecture: Seljuk

art and architecture: Seljuk  

Art and architecture produced during the Seljuk period is important in that it defined aesthetic and architectural expression in the central and eastern Islamic lands for the next several centuries. ...
art, Pictish

art, Pictish  

Art created by the inhabitants of northern Scotland in the MA. It consists of incised stones, cross slabs, monuments, and metalwork and is characterized by its use of zoomorphic and ...
Augusta Raurica

Augusta Raurica  

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A colony founded by L. Munatius Plancus in 44 bc in the territory of the Raurici. Strengthened by Augustus, with Augusta Praetoria and Augusta Vindelicorum it helped protect the upper ...

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