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Acre

Acre  

Ancient port on the eastern Mediterranean shore. It was lost by Byzantium to Chosroes II in 614, briefly regained, and lost to the Arabs in 638. Conquered in 1104 during ...
Agricultural techniques

Agricultural techniques  

Between the 10th and the 12th c., the diet of European man became essentially a cereal one, and agricultural techniques were primarily intended for “corn”. The tools were multi-purpose and ...
alchemy

alchemy  

The medieval forerunner of chemistry, concerned with the transmutation of matter, in particular with attempts to convert base metals into gold or find a universal elixir.The term comes (in late ...
antependium

antependium  

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The finish or covering for the front of an altar, often of elaborately woven fabric, or of metal. Also known as an altar-front or altar-facing.
armor, Body

armor, Body  

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Warriors have protected their bodies against the weapons of their opponents since the dawn of warfare. Generally, the type of armour worn has been appropriate to the nature of the ...
Armor Industry, Milanese

Armor Industry, Milanese  

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The city of Milan was a leading maker of armor and arms in medieval and early modern Europe. Its heyday was from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century, when it ...
Arms Industry and Trade

Arms Industry and Trade  

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Very little is known about the arms industry and trade in Europe during the Early Middle Ages, even though weapons were of course widely used by the warrior tribes of ...
Asia

Asia  

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Subject:
History
The largest continent in the world, occupying a third of its land surface. Asia stretches from the Arctic to the Equator and from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Asia includes the Indian ...
astrology

astrology  

The study of movements and relative positions of celestial bodies interpreted as having an influence on human affairs and the natural world. Ancient observers of the heavens developed elaborate ...
Balkans

Balkans  

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Subject:
History
The countries occupying the Balkan peninsula of south-eastern Europe, lying south of the Danube and Sava rivers, between the Adriatic and Ionian seas in the west, the Aegean and Black seas in the ...
ballistics, cannon, and gunnery

ballistics, cannon, and gunnery  

By the beginning of the 14th century Europeans had developed tube-shaped weapons, made in bronze or wrought iron, which used gunpowder to discharge missiles from them, bolts (initially) and then ...
Banská Bystrica

Banská Bystrica  

*Copper mining town in medieval northern Hungary. Refounded by German (probably Thuringian) settlers on the estate of Zvolen castle (Zólyom, Sohl), it received a charter from King Béla IV in ...
beaker

beaker  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ar]1 Generally, a ceramic or metal drinking vessel of suitable size and shape to hold in the hands. The precise type is normally specified by reference to form or fabric, thus butt beaker, ...
Bookbinding

Bookbinding  

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The art of sewing quires together within a cover into a single codex. The last step in manuscript book production, binding protected codices and kept their contents in order. Most ...
bow

bow  

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A weapon sometimes made of bronze (Ps. 18: 34), wielded by both soldiers and huntsmen. Arrows were made from reeds or polished wood (Isa. 49: 2), occasionally with poisoned tips (Job 6: 4). They were ...
Brenner Pass

Brenner Pass  

The lowest (in altitude) and most developed trade route over the Alps was centred here. It grew in importance from the 14th century, since it was the only crossing able ...
bronze

bronze  

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Alloy of copper and tin used for architectural ornament, doors and door-furniture, funerary monuments, grilles and railings, wall-plaques (commemorative or not), window-frames, etc. It is also used ...
building materials

building materials  

GreekIn its developed stages Greek architecture was based on the use of finely dressed stone masonry, mainly limestone. Where available, white marble was used for the finest structures. Transport ...
canopy

canopy  

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1 Roof-like ornamented hood surmounting an altar, doorway, font, niche, pulpit (where it is called a tester), stall, statue, tabernacle, throne, tomb, window-aperture, etc., supported on brackets, ...
castellany

castellany  

The basic comital territorial structure of Flanders from 993/4 on. The original military function broadened later into economic and judicial administration. Its court handled civil and criminal ...

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