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Alba Societas

Alba Societas  

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Also known as La Compagna Bianca, the Alba Comitiva, and the White Company, the Alba Societas was a mercenary company operating in Italy in the 1360s recruited from English, German ...
Angola

Angola  

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History
Angola's economy is growing thanks to oil exports but the country still faces a long period of post-war reconstruction.Angola has a dry coastal plain which is at its broadest in the north where it ...
Arcadia

Arcadia  

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A bleak and mountainous district in the central Peloponnese which became, as a result of references in Virgil's Eclogues, the traditional and incongruous location of the idealized world of the ...
archers

archers  

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History
A soldier armed with bow and arrows. Archers have practised their deadly skill since prehistory in most parts of the world, for example, the Romans employed Scythian archers on horseback. In the ...
Army, British

Army, British  

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The British army is still composed of fiercely individualistic regiments and corps. This is a reflection of the tenacity with which it has clung to its roots in the 17th ...
Bassae

Bassae  

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In SW Arcadia, the site of one of the best‐preserved Greek temples. It was dedicated to Apollo the Helper (Epikourios). It dates to the latter part of the 5th cent. bc with an interruption due to ...
Battle of Canturino

Battle of Canturino  

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The battle of Canturino was fought on 22 April 1363 between a predominantly German mercenary army in the employ of Milan and a largely English mercenary force in the service ...
Battle of Manzikert

Battle of Manzikert  

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(1071)Battle fought at a site near Lake Van in Turkey. Seljuk Turks, recent converts to Islam, routed a Byzantine force, capturing its leader, Emperor Romanos Diogenes IV. Alp Arslan, the Seljuk ...
battle of Najerá

battle of Najerá  

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1367.This engagement, fought in northern Spain, contributed much to the renown of Edward, the Black Prince. He had intervened in Castile to assist Peter II (the Cruel), deposed by his half‐brother, ...
battle of Tannenberg

battle of Tannenberg  

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(1410),also known as the battle of Grünwald, the decisive engagement of the ‘Great War’ of 1409–11, in which Polish-Lithuanian-Russian forces defeated the military monastic order of the Teutonic ...
battle of Wittstock

battle of Wittstock  

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(1636).This was fought around a little village on the Dosse river some 58 miles (93 km) north-west of Berlin on 4 October by the Swedish army under Johan Baner ...
bilingualism

bilingualism  

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Widespread bilingualism at some level was characteristic of the ancient world. Latin and esp. Greek were the languages of culture and education (in the Roman empire, Latin was the language of law and ...
central Europe

central Europe  

Cannot be sharply delimited on a map. Although it is situated on the east-west axis of the continent—the adjective “central” here signifies an in-between (as in Central America) rather than ...
Chares

Chares  

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(c. 400–c. 325 bc),famous Athenian soldier, probably more often general than any other Athenian of the 4th cent. except Phocion, notorious for his treatment of the allies of the ...
Clearchus

Clearchus  

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(c. 450–401 bc),Spartan officer. proxenos of Byzantium, he held various commands, there and elsewhere, from 411 onwards. At Byzantium again in 403, he made himself tyrant, but was ejected ...
condottieri

condottieri  

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(Italian condotta, ‘contract’) The leader of a medieval mercenary band of soldiers. Mercenaries flourished in the climate of economic prosperity and inter-municipal warfare of 14th- and 15th-century ...
Congo Crisis

Congo Crisis  

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History
(1960–65)A series of political disturbances in the Democratic Republic of the Congo following its independence from Belgium. The sudden decision by Belgium to grant independence to its vast colony ...
Crusader Relations with Byzantium

Crusader Relations with Byzantium  

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During the medieval period, Western Christendom and Byzantium were the two main centers of Christian faith in the Mediterranean world. For centuries relations had involved a degree of tension, ...
Cunaxa

Cunaxa  

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A small town on the Euphrates near Baghdad, where Cyrus (2), younger son of Darius II of Persia, was defeated and killed by his elder brother, Artaxerxes 2 II, in 401 bc. The battle is chiefly ...
Diego de La Rat

Diego de La Rat  

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(d. 1325),Catalan mercenary captain. Diego de La Rat came to Italy in 1297 during the War of Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302) and remained on the peninsula until his death. Little ...

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