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Abu Bakr

Abu Bakr  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(c. 573–634)First caliph of Islam (632–34). He was one of the earliest converts to Islam and a close companion of the Prophet Muhammad, who married his daughter Aisha. When he succeeded to Muhammad's ...
Abu Sufyan

Abu Sufyan  

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Religion
Wealthy and powerful seventh-century leader of Mecca and tribe of Quraysh. Led caravan that fought and was defeated by forces of Muhammad in the Battle of Badr. Also led forces opposed to and ...
Abuʾl-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿUmar al-Zamakhshārī

Abuʾl-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿUmar al-Zamakhshārī  

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Religion
(1075–1144 (ah 467–538).Muslim grammarian and Qurʾān commentator. He was born in the Khwārizm province of N. Persia, where, apart from a period of study in Mecca, he spent most ...
Aisha (Aishah)

Aisha (Aishah)  

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Religion
Daughter of first caliph, Abu Bakr; youngest and reputedly favorite wife of Muhammad. With Muhammad when he died. Renowned for knowledge of medicine, history, and rhetoric. Important transmitter of ...
al- Abbas

al- Abbas  

(c.567–c.653)*Muhammad’s uncle; a merchant who accepted Islam and joined in the conquest of Mecca (630). The Abbasid caliphal dynasty, which took its name from him, claimed descent from his son Abd ...
al- Bīrūnī

al- Bīrūnī  

(973 - after 1050)One of the greatest scholars of the Muslim world, born in Khwārizm and died at Ghazna soon after 1050. He was interested in History, Mathematics, astronomy ...
al- Masjid al-Ḥarām

al- Masjid al-Ḥarām  

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Religion
The mosque at Mecca, closely associated with the Kaʿba and Zamzam.
Al-Dajjāl

Al-Dajjāl  

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Religion
(Arab.).The perjurer or false accuser, a figure in Islamic eschatology, the ‘anti-Christ’ whose wiles and deceptions ‘cover’ (a root meaning) and resist the truth. He is not mentioned in ...
Ali

Ali  

(c.599–661)Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; fourth caliph (656–61); first Shiite imam; an early Quran scribe. Hasan and Husayn, his sons with Muhammad’s daughter Fatima, are the second and third ...
Arabia

Arabia  

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History
A peninsula of SW Asia, largely desert, lying between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf and bounded on the north by Jordan and Iraq, which is the original homeland of the Arabs and the historic centre ...
Arafat

Arafat  

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Religion
Mountain located outside of Mecca, on whose plain pilgrims gather on the ninth day of Dhu al-Hijjah. There they pray continously from just after noon until shortly after sunset. Many believe that ...
art and architecture: Arabic

art and architecture: Arabic  

With the spread of Islam from the Arabian Peninsula westward across North Africa and into Spain in the century following the death of the prophet Muhammad in 630, new forms ...
Askia Muhammad

Askia Muhammad  

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History
(died 1528)Emperor of Songhay in West Africa (1493–1528). Originally named Muhammad Turé, he was Sonni Ali's best general. He usurped Songhay from Ali's son in 1493, thus founding a new dynasty, and ...
Bilal

Bilal  

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Religion
Also known as “The Black.” Muhammad's former slave, who became a close associate and supporter of Islam in the seventh century. Appointed by Muhammad as first muezzin. In the twentieth century, Bilal ...
Black Stone

Black Stone  

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Religion
A stone said to be of meteoric origin, variously thought to be of lava or basalt, and reddish-black in colour, some 12 inches in diameter, embedded in the eastern corner ...
burial Customs.

burial Customs.  

(500–1500)The burial customs during the medieval period across Europe were, in broad terms, remarkably uniform, within and between the Christian, Muslim, and Jewish religions, although the details of ...
Companions

Companions  

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Religion
(Arab. Aṣḥāb or Ṣaḥāba).The men closest to Muḥammad during his time in Mecca and Madīna; foremost among these, the first four caliphs (khalīfa): Abu Bakr, ʿUmar, ʿUthmān, and ʿAlī b. Abī Tālib. See ...
Emigrants

Emigrants  

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Religion
(Arab., Muhājirūn).Those who accompanied Muḥammad on his emigration (hijra) from Mecca to Madīna in 622 ce or followed shortly afterwards. The term became a title of respect, describing those who had ...
Fatimid

Fatimid  

A descendant or Arabian dynasty claiming descent from Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad. The Fatimids ruled in parts of North Africa from 908 to 1171, and during some of that period in ...
Five Pillars of Islam

Five Pillars of Islam  

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Religion
(more literally, Pillars of the Faith, Arab., arkān ud-Din).These are the fundamental constituents of Muslim life. They are (i) ash-Shahāda, the witness;(ii) ṣalāt, formal prayer;(iii) zakāt, tithe ...

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