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markedness

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absent signifier

absent signifier  

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Overview Page
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Media studies
1. A particular feature which is perceived as missing from a representation in any medium, especially where it is ‘notable by its absence’, breaching expectations. See also commutation test; ...
articulation

articulation  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. In oral communication, control of the voice so as to produce clear and distinct sounds in speech.2. (semiotics) Structural levels within semiotic codes—which are divisible into those with single ...
bias

bias  

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Overview Page
Systematic distortion of results or findings from the true state of affairs, or any of several varieties of processes leading to systematic distortion. In everyday usage, “bias” often implies the ...
big close-up

big close-up  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
In photography, film, and television, a standard shot size which shows a detail of a foreground subject filling the entirety of the screen. A BCU of a person would show their face from forehead to ...
binary opposition

binary opposition  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(semiotics) A pair of mutually-exclusive signifiers in a paradigm set representing categories which are logically opposed and which together define a complete universe of discourse: for example, ...
canted shot

canted shot  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
An oblique or ‘crooked’ shot in which the camera is angled clockwise or anticlockwise (see also diagonality). In semiotic terms, a marked shot connoting disorientation. See also Dutch angle; compare ...
collocation

collocation  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. In linguistics (lexicology), the recurrent and predictable co-presence of individual words in conventional usage: as in idioms such as ‘neat and tidy’ (Firth). Words routinely found closely ...
commutation test

commutation test  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
(semiotics) A structuralist analytical technique used in the paradigmatic analysis of a text to determine whether a change on the level of the signifier leads to a change on the level of the ...
content analysis

content analysis  

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Overview Page
A technique used to study written material (often advertising copy) to reduce it to meaningful units, using carefully applied rules. It provides an objective and systematic description of a ...
crash zoom

crash zoom  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
A sudden, rapid zoom-in on a subject. A marked camera technique that has become a cliché in horror films. Compare whip pan.
cross dissolve

cross dissolve  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. In film and video post-production, a transition between two shots in which the first gradually fades out as the second is fading in, so that they overlap. This typically signifies the passage of ...
denaturalization

denaturalization  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. A goal in some semiotic analysis: revealing the socially coded basis of phenomena which are taken for granted as ‘natural’. Such analysis seeks to denaturalize signs and codes in order to make ...
Dutch angle shot

Dutch angle shot  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
An oblique or ‘crooked’ shot in which the camera is angled clockwise or anticlockwise (see also canted shot). Some reserve the term Dutch angle for shots which in addition involve a vertical tilt. ...
exnomination

exnomination  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
Barthes' term for the phenomenon whereby the bourgeoisie hides its name (and identity) by not referring to itself as such in order to naturalize bourgeois ideology and maintain its hegemony, ...
exoticism

exoticism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
A romanticization, fetishization, and/or commodification of ethnic, racial, or cultural otherness, as in orientalism, or primitivizing representations of the ‘noble savage’. Ethnocentric stereotyping ...
femininity

femininity  

A summary term, contrasted with masculinity, for the distinctive ways of acting and feeling on the part of women. Precisely what characteristics are listed varies, though passivity, dependence, and ...
figurative language

figurative language  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
See also rhetoric; compare imagery.1. Language that employs figures of speech, especially metaphor.2. As opposed to literal language, language that is not intended to be taken literally: see ...
first-person point of view

first-person point of view  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
Compare second-person point of view; third-person point of view.1. (first-person or subjective narration) In literary narratives (novels, novellas, and short stories), subjective narration by a ...
foregrounding

foregrounding  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
[loose rendering of Czech aktualisace ‘actualization’]1. For the Prague school linguists this referred to a stylistic feature characterizing poetic language (and literary language in general), in ...
gender bias

gender bias  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
A preference for persons of a particular sex (which it has become politically correct to describe as their “gender”) in hiring, promotion. To some extent gender bias is built into the English ...

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