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abjuration

abjuration  

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Religion
The act of renouncing an idea, person, or thing to which one has previously adhered. In the past, RC canon law defined it as the external retractation, made before witnesses, of errors contrary to ...
abstinence

abstinence  

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Religion
The practice of not eating certain foods: see also ASCETICISM; CELIBACY. As a Christian technical term it is distinguished from fasting (eating little or nothing).
Alexander of Lycopolis

Alexander of Lycopolis  

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Religion
(3rd cent.), writer against Manichaeism. He praises the simplicity and efficacy of Christian philosophy and contrasts it with the illogical and contradictory doctrines of Manichaeism.
Apocalypse of Thomas

Apocalypse of Thomas  

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Religion
An apocryphal eschatological treatise, probably written by a Manichaean at the end of the 4th century.
Atticus

Atticus  

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Religion
(d. 425), Patr. of Constantinople from 406. Though a bitter opponent of St John Chrysostom, he realized that the quarrel with Rome over Chrysostom's condemnation weakened the prestige of his see; he ...
Bardesanes

Bardesanes  

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Religion
(154–222), correctly ‘Bar-Daisan’, regarded by later writers as a heretic. All that is certain about his life is that he was a speculative thinker associated with the court of Abgar VIII at Edessa. ...
Bogomils

Bogomils  

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Religion
A member of a heretical medieval Balkan sect professing a modified form of Manichaeism. The name is recorded from the mid 19th century, and comes from medieval Greek Bogomilos, from Bogomil, ...
burning

burning  

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Religion
Burning alive was a penalty for certain criminal offences in late Roman and early Germanic law and was subsequently adopted in most W. European penal codes. The burning of convicted heretics was a ...
Cathari

Cathari  

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Religion
(Gk. καθαρός, ‘pure’).The name has been applied to several sects, e.g. to the Novatianists by St Epiphanius and other Greek Fathers, and, acc. to St Augustine, in the form ...
Cathars

Cathars  

A member of a heretical medieval Christian sect which professed a form of Manichaean dualism and sought to achieve great spiritual purity. The name is recorded in English from the mid 17th century, ...
Commandments, the Ten

Commandments, the Ten  

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Religion
Precepts divinely revealed to Moses on Mt. Sinai and engraved on two tablets of stone. The text is preserved in two closely similar versions (Exod. 20: 1–17 and Deut. 5: 6–21). Their dating has been ...
Confessions of St Augustine

Confessions of St Augustine  

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Religion
The anti-Manichaean prose-poem written by St Augustine c.398–400. The title means both ‘confessing’ in the biblical sense of praising God, and also avowal of faults. Books 1–9 are autobiographical; ...
Diocletian

Diocletian  

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Religion
(245–313),Roman emperor 284–305. Faced with mounting military problems, in 286 he divided the empire between himself in the east and Maximian in the west. Diocletian insisted on the maintenance of ...
Elkesaites

Elkesaites  

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Religion
A Jewish sect which arose c.ad 116 in Mesopotamia; they took their name from the ‘Book of Elkesai’ which claimed to contain revelations given to Elkesai (‘hidden power’) by an angel whose height was ...
Faustus of Milevis

Faustus of Milevis  

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(4th cent.), Manichaean propagandist. He won fame at Rome, but when he visited Carthage in 383, Augustine, himself then a Manichee, found him a fraud.
Flacius Illyricus

Flacius Illyricus  

(1520–75),Istrian Protestant theologian in Germany, born in the Venetian town of Albona (now Labin, in Croatia) and educated at the School of San Marco in Venice. In 1539 Flacius ...
John the Grammarian

John the Grammarian  

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Religion
(fl. c.515), theologian. He was an early representative of Neo-Chalcedonianism. Fragments of a defence of the Chalcedonian Definition preserved in Severus of Antioch's response to it and works ...
Julian

Julian  

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(c. 386–454),Pelagian theologian, briefly Bp. of Eclanum, in Apulia. Born in Apulia of Christian parents, he married before he was ordained. In 416 he became Bp. of Eclanum. On ...
Legend of Abgar

Legend of Abgar  

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Religion
According to tradition, Abgar V, King of Edessa (4 bc–ad 7 and 13–50), being ill, wrote to Christ asking Him to visit and heal him; in reply Christ promised that, after His Ascension, He would send a ...
Mandaeans

Mandaeans  

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Religion
A Gnostic sect which survives in S. Iraq and SW Iran. Their origins may go back to a group practising repeated baptisms, living to the east of the R. Jordan in the 1st and 2nd cents. ad. They hold ...

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