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Édouard Manet

(1832—1883) French painter

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académie

académie  

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A French term for a private art school, several of which flourished in Paris in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The term atelier libre has also been used to refer to such establishments. ...
Alfred-Émile Stevens

Alfred-Émile Stevens  

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(b Brussels, 11 May 1823; d Paris, 24 Aug. 1906).Belgian painter, active mainly in Paris, where he settled in 1852. From about 1860 he achieved immense success with his pictures of young ladies in ...
Beaux-Arts

Beaux-Arts  

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Florid Classical style evolved in the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts, the main official art-school in France, founded in 1795, when it became a separate institution from the old Académie ...
Berthe Morisot

Berthe Morisot  

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(b Bourges, 14 Jan. 1841; d Paris, 2 Mar. 1895).French painter and printmaker, a central figure of the Impressionist group. The daughter of a high-ranking civil servant and the ...
Boston: patronage and collecting

Boston: patronage and collecting  

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Although the Massachusetts Bay Colony founded by Puritans had a famous aversion to visual seduction, Boston has long quietly produced avid patrons and collectors of art. The painter John Smibert ...
Champfleury

Champfleury  

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(b Laon, 17 Sept. 1821; d Sèvres, 6 Dec. 1889).French writer whose huge and varied output included a good deal about art. He was a leading spokesman for the ...
Charles Baudelaire

Charles Baudelaire  

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(b Paris, 9 Apr. 1821; d Paris, 31 Aug. 1867).French poet and critic. As well as being a major poet, Baudelaire was one of the liveliest art critics of his day, passionate and partisan in his views. ...
Charles Cros

Charles Cros  

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Literature
(1842–88).A talented amateur scientist from the Midi, Cros is credited with the invention of an automatic telegraph, a recipe for colour photography, and the ‘paléophone’ of 1877, a device ...
Claude Monet

Claude Monet  

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(1840–1926)French Impressionist painter. He is regarded as the archetypal Impressionist in that his devotion to the ideals of the movement was unwavering throughout his long career, and it is fitting ...
Constantin Guys

Constantin Guys  

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(b Flushing [Vlissingen], 3 Dec. 1802; d Paris, 13 Mar. 1892).French illustrator. In the earlier part of his career he travelled widely and adventurously, fighting in the Greek War of Independence in ...
Courtauld Institute of Art

Courtauld Institute of Art  

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Founded by the English industrialist Samuel Courtauld (1876–1947). He was a collector of French Impressionist and post-Impressionist paintings. He presented his collection to the University of ...
Diego Velázquez

Diego Velázquez  

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(bapt. Seville, 6 June 1599; d Madrid, 6 Aug. 1660).The greatest painter of the Spanish School, chiefly celebrated as one of the supreme portraitists in world art. He spent ...
Dresden, Gemäldegalerie

Dresden, Gemäldegalerie  

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There are two painting collections of major importance: the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Old Master Gallery) and the Gemäldegalerie Neue Meister (Gallery of New Masters). The former is housed in the ...
Edgar Degas

Edgar Degas  

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(1834–1917)French painter, graphic artist, and sculptor, one of the outstanding figures of Impressionism. He exhibited at seven out of the eight Impressionist exhibitions, but he stood somewhat aloof ...
Edmond Duranty

Edmond Duranty  

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(b Paris, 6 June 1833; d Paris, 9 Apr. 1880).French writer, primarily a novelist but also an art critic. In the history of art he is most notable as ...
Edvard Munch

Edvard Munch  

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(b Løten, 12 Dec. 1863; d Oslo, 23 Jan. 1944).Norwegian painter and printmaker, his country's greatest artist. He began painting in a conventional naturalistic manner, but by 1884 he was part of the ...
Émile Zola

Émile Zola  

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Literature
(1840–1902),the leading figure in the French school of naturalistic fiction, of which Thérèse Raquin (1867) is his earliest example. The first volume (La Fortune des Rougon) of his principal work, ...
Eva Gonzalez

Eva Gonzalez  

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(1849–1883).French painter. Gonzalez enjoyed a sophisticated literary and artistic upbringing in Paris, where she began her art training with Charles Chaplin. Throughout her life, she maintained a ...
exhibitions

exhibitions  

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The temporary display in a given location of a selection of artworks or artefacts. The very first exhibitions of *‘Old Masters’ were held in Rome and Florence in the 17th century. By the 19th century ...
Félix Bracquemond

Félix Bracquemond  

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(b Paris, ?28 May 1833; d Sèvres, nr Paris, 27 Oct 1914).French printmaker, designer, painter and writer. Bracquemond produced almost 900 plates, divided about equally between original and ...

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