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Abbasid

Abbasid  

A member of a dynasty of caliphs who ruled in Baghdad from 750 to 1258, named after Abbas (566–652), the prophet Muhammad's uncle and founder of the dynasty.
Aleppo

Aleppo  

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An ancient city in northern Syria, which was formerly an important commercial centre on the trade route between the Mediterranean and the countries of the East.
Arabs

Arabs  

Ancient tribes and peoples who lived in, and around the modern Arabian peninsula. Herodotus was acquainted with the Arabs of southern Palestine and the Sinai, and mentions the Arabs of the incense ...
assassins

assassins  

The Nizari branch of Ismaili Muslims at the time of the Crusades, renowned as militant fanatics and popularly supposed to use hashish before going on murder missions. The name comes (in the mid 16th ...
Ayyubids

Ayyubids  

A dynasty of independent Sunni rulers, founded by Saladin (in Arabic Salāh al-Dīn ibn Ayyūb), which reigned in Egypt, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia and Yemen from 1171 to 1260, ensuring the ...
Battle of the Pyramids

Battle of the Pyramids  

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History
(21 July 1798)The decisive battle fought near the pyramids of Giza that gave Napoleon control of Egypt. He took Alexandria by storm on 2 July, and then, with 40,000 men defeated a Mameluke army of ...
Baybars I

Baybars I  

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Third Mamluk sultan of Egypt (r. 1260–77). Turkish military slave of the last Ayyubid ruler. Won early victories over Louis IX's Crusaders (Mansura, Egypt, 1250) and Mongols (Ayn Jalut, Syria, 1260), ...
Bayezid II

Bayezid II  

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(c. 1447–1512)Ottoman sultan (1481–1512). He wrested the throne from his brother Jem on the death of their father Mehmed, fought inconclusively with the Mamelukes (1485–91), gained Greek and Adriatic ...
Cairo

Cairo  

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(Arab., al-Qāhira, ‘the victorious’, but also from al-Qāhir, Mars, the city of Mars).Capital city of the Fāṭimids, established by al-Muʿizz in 969 (ah 358). It was originally called al-Manṣūriyya ...
caliph

caliph  

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Religion
The chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad. The caliph ruled in Baghdad until 1258 and then in Egypt until the Ottoman conquest of 1517; the title was then held ...
caliphate

caliphate  

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Formerly, the central ruling office of Islam. The first caliph (Arabic, khalifa, “deputy of God” or “successor of his Prophet”) after the Prophet Muhammad's death in 632 was his father-in-law Abu ...
capitulation

capitulation  

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Religion
Commercial privileges granted by Muslim states, especially the Ottoman and Persian Empires, to Christian European states to conduct trade. Based on the principle of aman (safe conduct), capitulations ...
castle

castle  

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History
A fortified building for the defence of a town or district, doubling as the private residence of a baron in the Middle Ages. Although also called ‘castles’, Celtic hill-forts, Roman camps, and Saxon ...
Damietta

Damietta  

Port on eastern Nile delta captured by Arabs in 638. Held in 1219–21 during the crusade of Frederick II and in 1249–50 during the Fifth Crusade, it was the site ...
Egypt

Egypt  

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History
Egypt, the largest Arab country, has made little progress towards democracyEgypt's vast territory consists of two main desert areas separated by the fertile Nile Valley. The western desert occupies ...
French Egyptian expedition

French Egyptian expedition  

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(1798–1801).This was promoted by Napoleon, who was at a loose end during the peace that followed his first Italian campaign, but had concluded that an invasion of England was ...
French Revolutionary Wars

French Revolutionary Wars  

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(1792–1801).It is the deepest irony that the French Revolution, with its ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity, led to a quarter-century of bloody war. Although the revolutionaries who formed ...
glass

glass  

[Ma]An artificial material produced by fusing silica sand with an alkali such as potash or sodium. It was probably developed from faience in the Near East during the 3rd millennium bc, but was not ...
Golden Horde

Golden Horde  

The Tartars of the Mongol khanate of the Western Kipchaks (1242–1480). The word “horde” derives from the Mongol ordo, meaning a camp, while “golden” recalls the magnificence of Batu Khan's ...
Guy of Lusignan

Guy of Lusignan  

(1297/1300–1344)King of Armenia. Son of Amalric de Lusignan, lord of Tyre, and Isabella of Armenia, he entered the service of the Emperor Andronicus II, who made him strategos of ...

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