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Thomas Robert Malthus

(1766—1834) political economist

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith  

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(1723–90)Scottish philosopher and economist. Although best remembered as an economist, Smith was a polymath, and an eminent social theorist and moral philosopher. Born in Kirkcaldy, he was educated ...
agrarianism

agrarianism  

Agrarian societies are those which combine horticulture and animal husbandry in systems of farming. Agrarianism also refers to the romanticization of the rural farm as the ideal place for family life.
Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry  

From 1740 to 1850, the organization and efficiency of much of western European agriculture were transformed. Sometimes called an agricultural revolution, this process was prior to or concomitant with ...
Alfred Russel Wallace

Alfred Russel Wallace  

(1823–1913)British naturalist, who in 1848 went on an expedition to the Amazon, and in 1854 travelled to the Malay Archipelago. There he noticed the differences between the animals of Asia and ...
Antony Garrard Newton Flew

Antony Garrard Newton Flew  

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Philosophy
(1923–)Antony Flew was born on 11 February 1923 in Ealing, London, England. He attended St. Faith’s Preparatory School, Kingswood School, and St. John’s College, Oxford, where he earned a ...
Arnold Toynbee

Arnold Toynbee  

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Philosophy
(1852–83)Arnold Toynbee was born in Savile Row, London on 23 August 1852 and died in Wimbledon on 9 March 1883. Two unexpected events shaped his formative years and later ...
Bentley's Miscellany

Bentley's Miscellany  

(1837–69),a successful periodical consisting of essays, stories, and poems, begun by R. Bentley. Dickens was the first editor, and Oliver Twist appeared in its pages in 1837–8. J. H. Reynolds, Hook, ...
carrying capacity

carrying capacity  

In ecology (1) and the theory of evolution, the maximum number of individuals that a habitat or area can support indefinitely, the limit usually being determined by the available food supply.
Catastrophist–cornucopian Debate

Catastrophist–cornucopian Debate  

Catastrophist and cornucopian are two relatively neutral and descriptive names for two opposed points of view on the meaning and consequences of global environmental change and on nature–society ...
Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin  

(1809–82)British naturalist, who studied medicine in Edinburgh followed by theology at Cambridge University, intending a career in the Church. However, his interest in natural history led him to ...
Charles Robert Prinsep

Charles Robert Prinsep  

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(1789–1864)Prinsep was at Thoby Priory, near Brentwood in Essex, some time in 1789, and died at Chiswick, near London on 8 June 1864. His father, John Prinsep, was a ...
classical economics

classical economics  

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An economic theory based on the principles that both individuals and society prosper most with a minimum of political intervention, and that the allocation of a scarce resource is best decided ...
corn Laws

corn Laws  

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History
Regulations applied in Britain to the import and export of grain (mainly wheat) in order to control its supply and price. In 1815, following the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Parliament passed a law ...
David Ricardo

David Ricardo  

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(1772–1823)British political economist who, with Adam Smith, founded British classical economics. In 1819–23 he was an MP, supporting Free Trade, a return to the gold standard, and the repeal of the ...
David Victor Glass

David Victor Glass  

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(1911–78)A British sociologist who is justly famous for his pioneering work on demography and social mobility. His landmark study of Social Mobility in Britain (1954) was based on a sample of men and ...
dissenting academies

dissenting academies  

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Philosophy
The Act of Uniformity (1662) excluded dissenting ministers from their posts. Many, out of necessity, became teachers. Dissenting academies were particularly popular in Devon, Lancashire, London, and ...
Earl of Lauderdale

Earl of Lauderdale  

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(1759–1839)James Maitland, 8th Earl of Lauderdale, was born on 26 January 1759 in the parish of Ratho, Midlothian. He died on 13 September 1839 at the age of eighty ...
Edward Copleston

Edward Copleston  

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(1776–1849),Bp. of Llandaff. A fine classical scholar, he was elected a Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, in 1795 and Provost of the college in 1814. In 1826 he became ...
emigration

emigration  

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History
The movement of individuals out of a country or area; the opposite of immigration.
exponential law

exponential law  

A model of the growth rate of a population based on a constant rate of compound interest, in which the increment in each period is added to the original value and the total used to calculate the next ...

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