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James Madison

(1751—1836) revolutionary politician in America and president of the United States of America

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Albert Gallatin

Albert Gallatin  

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Overview Page
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Literature
(1761–1849),born in Switzerland, emigrated to America at the age of 19 and became a frontier political leader, after 1797 being the recognized spokesman for the Republican minority, whose criticism ...
Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton  

(c. 1757–1804)US Federalist politician. He served under George Washington as First Secretary of the Treasury (1789–95) and established the US central banking system. Hamilton was a prime mover behind ...
Alien and Sedition Acts

Alien and Sedition Acts  

(1798).The term “Alien and Sedition Acts” refers to four controversial laws enacted by the Federalist-controlled Congress in 1798 in response to fears about imminent war with France and about ...
Appointment and Removal Power

Appointment and Removal Power  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The Constitution of the United States contains two references to the appointment and removal power. Article II, section 2 provides that the president, “by and with the advice and consent ...
Bill of Rights

Bill of Rights  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(1791)The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the USA. The constitutional arrangements of 1787 were assumed to guarantee human and civil rights, but omission of specific rights led to ...
Bushrod Washington

Bushrod Washington  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
Associate Justice, 1798–1829• Born: June 5, 1762, Westmoreland County, Va.• Education: College of William and Mary, B.A., 1778; read law with James Wilson in Philadelphia, Pa.• Previous government ...
Butler, United States v.

Butler, United States v.  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
297 U.S. 1 (1936), argued 9–10 Dec. 1935, decided 6 Jan. 1936, by vote of 6 to 3; Roberts for the Court, Stone, Brandeis, and Cardozo in dissent. The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 represented a ...
canal

canal  

Darius I completed the canal begun by Necho (see saïtes) to connect the Pelusiac branch of the Nile above (south of) Bubastis to the Red Sea. Ptolemy II built a longer canal, from the still undivided ...
caucuses, congressional

caucuses, congressional  

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Overview Page
The congressional caucus was a method of nominating Presidential candidates used by the Federalist party in 1800 and the Democratic-Republican party between 1800 and 1824.Borrowing the word from the ...
Church and State

Church and State  

[This brief review is designed to provide access to the numerous articles in the encyclopedia that deal with the complex of church-state relations in the sixteenth century.] Persistent conflict over ...
Civil Liberties and War

Civil Liberties and War  

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Overview Page
From the outset of the new American government under the Articles of Confederation, the need for striking a delicate balance between authority and liberty was essential. Fear of powerful central ...
conscientious Objection

conscientious Objection  

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Overview Page
Is the refusal to undertake military service when legally required to do so. Although it has often been portrayed as a form of cowardice, in fact historically it has required ...
Constitution of the United States

Constitution of the United States  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The basic written set of principles and precedents of federal government in the US, which came into operation in 1789 and has since been modified by twenty-six amendments.Constitution State an ...
Constitutional and Political Basis of War and the Military

Constitutional and Political Basis of War and the Military  

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Overview Page
When the framers met in Philadelphia to draft the U.S. Constitution, they were aware that existing models of government placed the war power squarely in the hands of the king. ...
Constitutional Convention

Constitutional Convention  

By late 1786, only three years after the end of the Revolutionary War, most Americans had concluded that the Confederation Congress was too weak to deal with the social, economic ...
contracts Clause

contracts Clause  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The Contracts Clause is an important part of the history of property rights in America. Under the Articles of Confederation (1781–1789), the newly independent states responded to the economic ...
Court Curbing

Court Curbing  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The American system of government embodies the principle of separation of powers under which three distinct branches are entrusted with overlapping authority, each having what James Madison, writing ...
creation of the Presidency

creation of the Presidency  

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Overview Page
The office of President of the United States was created at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. The framers had three options: to create a weak executive to administer the departments ...
Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The foundation document of the United States of America, which proclaimed American separation from Britain and was adopted by the Continental Congress on 4 July 1776. Its principal author was Thomas ...
demography

demography  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
The statistical study of human populations, including size, structure, and changes.

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