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Albert Reynolds

Albert Reynolds  

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Overview Page
(b. 3 Nov. 1932).Prime Minister (Taoiseach) of the Irish Republic 1992–4 Born in Rooskey, Co. Roscommon, he spent many years as a businessman. He was first elected to Dáil Éireann (the Irish ...
Amsterdam Treaty

Amsterdam Treaty  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The EU treaty signed in Amsterdam in 1997 (in force from 1 May 1999), which amended provisions of the Treaty of Rome (European Community Treaty) and the Maastricht Treaty (Treaty on European Union). ...
citizen of the European Union

citizen of the European Union  

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Overview Page
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Law
A form of citizenship established by the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. Every person holding the citizenship of a member state is automatically a citizen of the EU; this status does not have to be ...
codecision procedure

codecision procedure  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A procedure introduced by the Maastricht Treaty that gives the European Parliament a power to veto certain legislative proposals. If the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament fail ...
Common Foreign and Security Policy

Common Foreign and Security Policy  

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Overview Page
Policy areas covered by the second of the three pillars of the European Union (EU), established by the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. (The Lisbon Treaty sought to collapse the three‐pillar structure but ...
Community legislation

Community legislation  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
Laws made by the European Parliament acting jointly with the Council of the European Union and the European Commission. Each body has legislative powers but most legislation is now made by the ...
convergence criteria

convergence criteria  

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Overview Page
The economic tests used to determine whether member states of the European Union are ready to adopt the Euro, as set out in the 1991 Masstricht Treaty. The four principal criteria concern (i) the ...
cooperation procedure

cooperation procedure  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A procedure introduced by the Single European Act1986 that allows the European Parliament to impede the adoption of proposed legislation by the Council of the European Union; the Maastricht Treaty ...
corporatism

corporatism  

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Overview Page
A concept of a political economic system in which economic decisions are achieved through negotiation between centralized corporate bodies representing interest groups. In particular, under ...
Crisis

Crisis  

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International crises punctuated the Cold War confrontation between the Soviet- and American-led blocs. Crises such as the Berlin blockade (1948), the outbreak of war in Korea (1950), the struggles ...
Economic and Monetary Union

Economic and Monetary Union  

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The creation of a single European currency, the euro, managed by an independent European Central Bank (ECB), and the coordination of economic policies of participating member states which are ...
euro

euro  

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Overview Page
Name for the new currency that is due to come into being on 1 January 1999 following European Monetary Union (cf. Eurofed).
European Central Bank

European Central Bank  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(ECB)A central bank of the European Union to which member states who have adopted European Monetary Union (EMU) are committed by the Maastricht Treaty. The ECB was set up in 1998 and became active in ...
European Community

European Community  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The three original bodies of European integration: the European Community, the European Atomic Energy Community, and the European Coal and Steel Community (now defunct).
European Council

European Council  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A body consisting of the heads of government of the member states of the European Union. It is not a formal organ of the EU (compare Council of the European Union), but meets three times a year to ...
European Court of Justice

European Court of Justice  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The fully multilingual judicial authority of the European Union, established in 1952. In cooperation with the courts and tribunals of member states, the Court provides judicial oversight of the ...
European Economic and Monetary Union

European Economic and Monetary Union  

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Overview Page
(EMU)The EU policy that culminated in the creation of the European Central Bank (1999) and a single European currency for participatein states. See feature Economic and Monetary Union.
European Economic Community

European Economic Community  

The European common market set up in 1957 by the six member states of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC); i.e. Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and The Netherlands. At the ...
European integration

European integration  

The formation of European states into the world's closest regional association, which has assumed many of the characteristics of statehood.Early history (up to 1957)The attempt to promote economic ...
European Monetary System

European Monetary System  

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Overview Page
(EMS)A European organization set up in 1979 to coordinate monetary policy and exchange rates in Europe. Its main activities were running the Exchange Rate Mechanism and planning European Monetary ...

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