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Abruzzi

Abruzzi  

The Abruzzi covered the whole south-east part of the duchy of Spoleto. The region was characterised by the weakness of its urban network, destroyed at the time of the Lombard ...
Adrian I, pope

Adrian I, pope  

(died 795)A Roman, Adrian I was consecrated on 9 Feb 772 and died on Christmas day 795. His was certainly one of the most important pontificates, from a politico-religious ...
Aistulf

Aistulf  

(died 756)Aistulf was proclaimed King of the Lombards (and reigned 749–756) at Milan, while Pavia was still held by his brother and predecessor Ratchis (744–749), who retired to Monte Cassino.[...]
Alboin

Alboin  

[Na]King of the Lombards, succeeding his father c.ad 565. With Avar assistance he destroyed the Gepids and withdrew into Italy with his people, where he overthrew the new Byzantine state. He was ...
Alps

Alps  

Of Celtic origin, the word “Alps” means “high summit”, “rock”, and designates the largest and highest of the European mountain ranges, extending in the form of an arc 1000 kilometres ...
Ambrosius Autpertus

Ambrosius Autpertus  

(died 784)Born in Provence, a monk at San Vincenzo al Volturno in the Beneventano, Ambrosius Autpert became its abbot in 777. In 774 Charlemagne had defeated the Lombards, but ...
Anagni

Anagni  

An ancient city of pre-Roman origin (capital of the Ernici), situated south-east of Rome. An episcopal see from the 5th c. (probably founded by Leo the Great), its ecclesiastical and ...
Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry  

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History
Concerned not only with ‘domestic animals,’ but also bees and silkworms. Throughout the MA, animals for the most part were allowed to wander free; thus horses, for example, were often ...
annals

annals  

(from Latin annus, ‘year’) The yearly records kept by the priests in Rome from the earliest times. They noted ceremonies, state enactments, and the holders of office. The high priest (Pontifex ...
Apulia

Apulia  

In Roman times, Apulia covered the north of modern Puglia and the neighbouring areas: the south of the region was called Calabria, a name that shifted during the early Middle ...
Aquileia

Aquileia  

On the Adriatic coast, became an important city during the late Roman Empire. According to legend it was evangelized by St Mark, but the beginnings of the Church cannot be traced beyond the 3rd cent. ...
Arezzo

Arezzo  

A Tuscan city located in the upper valley of the Arno river, Arezzo flourished in the 13th century as a Ghibelline commune rival to Siena and Florence. An important Etruscan ...
assembly

assembly  

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The people of Israel were summoned as a whole community to listen to Moses and Aaron (Exod. 12: 3) and to Solomon (1 Kgs. 8: 14). In the taunt song over Babylon, the king of Babylon is mockingly made ...
Assisi

Assisi  

A town in the province of Umbria in central Italy, famous as the birthplace of St Francis, whose tomb is located there.
Atto of Vercelli

Atto of Vercelli  

(d. 959×60), bishop; author of a commentary on the Pauline epistles,socio-political works (De pressuris ecclesiasticis and Polypticum), an episcopal capitulary, sermons, and letters.RMeJ. Bauer, Die ...
Avars

Avars  

A member of a nomadic equestrian people from central Asia who built up a large kingdom in SE Europe from the 6th century but were conquered by Charlemagne (791–9).
barbarian

barbarian  

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While we associate Classical culture primarily with emphasis on citizenship (membership of a polis), Classical Greek literature also assigns considerable importance to defining a common Greek ...
Barbarian Laws

Barbarian Laws  

Until their settlement in the Roman Empire, the German peoples followed oral customary laws. The establishment of the Romano-barbarian kingdoms made necessary the revision of common Roman law and the ...
Bari

Bari  

An Adriatic Port in Apulia, now a regional capital; the old town (which alone existed before the reign of Murat) occupies a low promontory. In Antiquity, it was a city ...
Bavaria

Bavaria  

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History
A south German duchy ruled by the Wittelsbach family (see Appendix 1) from 1180 to 1918. From 1253 to 1504 the duchy was repeatedly partitioned, initially into Upper Bavaria and ...

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