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Alexandria

Alexandria  

The chief port and second‐largest city of Egypt, on the Mediterranean coast, northwest of Cairo. Founded in 332 bc by Alexander the Great, after whom it is named, it became a major centre of ...
ancient scholarship

ancient scholarship  

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GreekIn one sense of the term, scholarship began when literature became a central element of education and the prescribed texts had to be explained and interpreted to pupils in a class. An early ...
Andrew Carnegie

Andrew Carnegie  

(1835–1919)British-born US industrialist and philanthropist who used his personal fortune, derived largely from the steel industry, to finance a variety of charitable institutions.Carnegie was born ...
Angelo Mai

Angelo Mai  

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Literature
(1782–1854),Italian philologist and palaeographer. Born of poor parents, he was educated at the Collegium Romanum and for a time belonged to the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). In 1813 he ...
Anton Maria Bandini

Anton Maria Bandini  

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Literature
(1726–1800).Librarian who catalogued the manuscripts of the Biblioteca Laurenziana in Florence (published 1776–93). He is also noted for bio-bibliographical and documentary contributions on Tuscan ...
Antonio Magliabechi

Antonio Magliabechi  

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 (1633–1714) Italian librarian and book collector.Bitter-tongued, hunchbacked, self-taught, and the son of a leather worker, his erudition and prodigious memory brought him the position of custodian ...
Antonio Panizzi

Antonio Panizzi  

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(1797–1879),born in Italy, fled to England as a political exile in 1823. He became in 1856 principal librarian at the British Museum and was responsible for the preparation of a new catalogue and for ...
Apollonius of Rhodes

Apollonius of Rhodes  

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Apollonios Rhodios lived in Alexandria in the third and second centuries b.c.e. and eventually became head of the great library there. He wrote the story of the voyage of the Argonauts and the Golden ...
architecture, Ecclesiastical

architecture, Ecclesiastical  

Ecclesiastical architecture responds, from a purely practical point of view, primarily to the requirements of worship and secondarily to the needs of those who dedicate themselves to the religious ...
archive

archive  

A historical document. The plural form is also applied to the place where such documents are housed, e.g. a county record office.
Arctic convoys

Arctic convoys  

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Transported matériel from UK and Icelandic ports for the Soviet war effort via the Norwegian and Barents seas. A total of 4.43 million tons was shipped by this route, 22.7% ...
Aristarchus

Aristarchus  

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Of Samothrace (c.216–144 bc), sat at the feet of Aristophanes of Byzantium at Alexandria. He became head of the Alexandrian Library c.153. On the accession of Ptolemy VIII (145) he left Alexandria ...
Art Market

Art Market  

Before offering an account of its historical development, it is first necessary to define what is meant by art market. An art market differs from the situation in which art ...
arts of the Book

arts of the Book  

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The arts of the book were of extraordinary importance throughout the Islamic lands because of the primacy Islam accorded the written word. The Islamic world inherited earlier traditions of book ...
Asinius Pollio, Gāius

Asinius Pollio, Gāius  

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(76 bc–ad 4),supported Caesar, as praetor in 45, commanding in Spain in 44, and then joined Antony (Marcus Antonius ); in Cisalpine Gaul in 41 he saved Virgil's property from confiscation. Consul in ...
baths

baths  

[Co]A feature of all Roman towns and cities as well as private houses throughout the empire. From the 1st century bc onwards, the tradition of bathing became a major social institution. See thermae.
Benedetto Bacchini

Benedetto Bacchini  

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Literature
(1651–1721).Ecclesistical historian and scholar, who published erudite historical treatises and essays in the Giornale dei letterati (1686–97). Professor of Scripture at Bologna University, court ...
Benintendi de' Ravagnani

Benintendi de' Ravagnani  

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Literature
(c. 1318–60).Notary and Chancellor of the Venetian Republic and a personal friend of Petrarch. In 1362 he endeavoured to obtain a residence in Venice for him in return for ...
Bessarion

Bessarion  

(1399/1400–1472)Born at Trebizond of a modest family, the young Bessarion was noticed by Metropolitan Dositheus, who took him with him to Constantinople in c.1415. There he studied Rhetoric and ...
Bologna

Bologna  

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Literature
N. Italy. In the Middle Ages its university (founded in the 12th cent.) was the chief centre in Europe for the study of canon and civil law.

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