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authoritarianism

authoritarianism  

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A style of government in which the rulers demand unquestioning obedience from the ruled. Traditionally, ‘authoritarians’ have argued for a high degree of determination by governments of belief and ...
Benin

Benin  

[Ge]A kingdom in southern Nigeria famous for bronze casting. Using the cire perdue technique, metalworkers cast human heads and relief plaques in a long series which stylistic analyses suggest lasted ...
Chinese Revolution

Chinese Revolution  

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History
The overthrow of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the establishment of a Chinese republic. After half a century of anti-Manchu risings, the imperial government began a reform movement that gave limited ...
class consciousness

class consciousness  

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In the transition from a ‘class in itself’ (a category of people having a common relation to the means of production) to a ‘class for itself’ (a stratum organized in active pursuit of its own ...
Comintern

Comintern  

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(Communist International)Organization of national communist parties for the propagation of communist doctrine with the aim of bringing about a world revolution. It was established by Lenin (1919) in ...
Communist Party States

Communist Party States  

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When World War I broke out in 1914 there were no communist party states. For many years after the Russian Revolution of 1917 there were only three, the Soviet Union ...
Confucianism

Confucianism  

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Religion
A system of philosophical and ethical teachings founded by the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479bc). His ideas about the importance of practical moral values, collected by his disciples in the ...
Congo

Congo  

The smaller of the two Congos is potentially oil rich, but its recurring civil war has held back developmentThe country's official name is the Republic of the Congo, though it is also known as Congo ...
dependency

dependency  

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A dependent territory is a territory that does not possess full political sovereignty (e.g. Ashmore and Cartier Islands is an external territory of Australia; and the Pitcairn Islands, a British ...
Fidel Castro

Fidel Castro  

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History
(1926– )Cuban statesman; prime minister (1959–76) and president (1976– ), who has evolved his own brand of Marxism and maintained a socialist government on the doorstep of the USA.Born in Biran, the ...
Horn of Africa

Horn of Africa  

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Associated with war and famine in recent years, the Horn of Africa is a strategically located and potentially rich region. Lying astride the northwest Indian Ocean and the Red Sea ...
imperialism

imperialism  

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History
N.a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force: the struggle against Western imperialism.imperialistic adj. imperialistically adv.n.a policy of extending ...
intelligentsia

intelligentsia  

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Intellectuals or highly educated people as a group, especially when regarded as possessing culture and political influence. The word comes (in the early 20th century) from Russian intelligentsiya, ...
internal colonialism

internal colonialism  

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Application of the theory of imperialism developed by Lenin to centre–periphery relationships within a country. The Leninist theory of imperialism argued that an imperialist country exported the ...
Karl Marx

Karl Marx  

(1818–83)German political philosopher and economist, resident in England from 1849. The founder of modern communism, he collaborated with Engels in the writing of the Communist Manifesto (1848). ...
left

left  

In political terms, now indicative of the radical or progressive socialist spectrum, but originally literally a spatial term. In the French estates general of 1789, commoners sat on the left of the ...
Lenin

Lenin  

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History
(1870–1924)A Marxist theoretician and revolutionary, born in Russia, whose early life was characterized by a more or less orthodox Marxism. However, from the late 1890s he developed a distinctive ...
Louis Auguste Blanqui

Louis Auguste Blanqui  

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History
(1805–81)French radical thinker and revolutionary leader. He launched an attack on the Paris Hotel de Ville in 1839. Sentenced to death, his sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment. A brief ...
Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong  

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(1893–1976)Chinese statesman, chairman of the Communist Party of the Chinese People's Republic (1949–76) and head of state (1949–59). After studying Marxism as a student he was among the founders of ...
Marxism

Marxism  

The political and economic theories of the German political philosopher and economists Karl Marx (1818–83) and Friedrich Engels (1820–95), later developed by their followers to form the basis for the ...

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