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Battle of Legnano

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Alexander III

Alexander III  

(d. 1181), Pope from 1159. After his election, an antipope (Victor IV) was immediately set up and supported by the Emp. Frederick I. During the 17-year schism, Alexander lived mainly in France. Here ...
Frederick I

Frederick I  

(c. 1123–90)King of Germany and Holy Roman emperor (1152–90). He made a sustained attempt to subdue Italy and the papacy, but was eventually defeated at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. He was drowned ...
Lombard League

Lombard League  

Alliance of north Italian city-states to resist threats to communal autonomy by the Hohenstaufen emperors. Following Frederick I’s reassertion of feudal rights at Roncaglia (1158), the destruction of ...
Milan

Milan  

A city and archiepiscopal see in Lombardy. Medieval Milan was a manufacturing city with an international reputation for its metalwork (particularly arms and armour) and a substantial trade in ...
militias, Urban

militias, Urban  

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Municipal armies appeared in various parts of western Europe during the Central Middle Ages (1000–1300) but did not achieve equal development in all regions. Their emergence depended on the existence ...
tactics

tactics  

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Pl. n.1 the employment of units in combat.2 the ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to each other and/or to the enemy in order to use their full potentialities.[...]

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