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Abraham Bar Hiyya

Abraham Bar Hiyya  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. c.1136).Jewish Spanish philosopher and translator. He produced several works of philosophy, the best known of which are Hegyon ha-Nefesh ha-Azuvah (Meditation of the Sad Soul), the encyclopaedic ...
Aeneas

Aeneas  

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Overview Page
In classical mythology, a Trojan leader, son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and legendary ancestor of the Romans. When Troy fell to the Greeks he escaped and after wandering for many years eventually ...
al- Kindī

al- Kindī  

(c.801–c.866)An Arab philosopher and scholar who lived at Baghdad as a familiar of the caliphs, at a time of great theological controversies and intense activity of translating Greek works ...
alchemy

alchemy  

The medieval forerunner of chemistry, concerned with the transmutation of matter, in particular with attempts to convert base metals into gold or find a universal elixir.The term comes (in late ...
Alcuin

Alcuin  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
(c. 735–804)English scholar and theologian. In 782 was employed by Emperor Charlemagne as head of his palace school at Aachen, where his pupils included many of the outstanding figures in the ...
Aldhelm

Aldhelm  

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Overview Page
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History
(c. 639–709)was one of the most learned men of his time. Thought to be related to West Saxon kings and educated at Malmesbury under the Irish scholar Maildubh, he also studied briefly at the ...
Alfonsine Tables

Alfonsine Tables  

A set of astronomical tables reputed to have been worked out at the prompting of Alfonso X of Castile, the Alfonsine tables are in fact the work of a Parisian ...
Alvaro of Cordova

Alvaro of Cordova  

(9th c.)Alvaro was the most illustrious figure, along with his fellow disciple Abbot Eulogio, of the 9th-c. Mozarabic “martyr movement”, which struggled against the progress of Islam – or ...
Angelo Clareno

Angelo Clareno  

(1247/55–1337)Leading exponent of the Spiritual Franciscans. Angelo vigorously opposed the Conventual wing of the order and was, consequently, persecuted for his strict observance of St Francis’ ...
Anglo-Norman

Anglo-Norman  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Designating the French language as spoken and written in the British Isles from the Norman Conquest until the 14th cent. It was a western type of French which, transplanted to Britain, developed ...
Apocryphal New Testament

Apocryphal New Testament  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Christian writings not included in the authoritative canon of the NT which claim to be reminiscences of the life of the young Jesus and his miraculous powers, or supplements to the book of Acts about ...
Apophthegmata Patrum

Apophthegmata Patrum  

Collections of sayings of, or brief stories about, Egyptian monks, known in English as ‘Sayings of the Desert Fathers’. The material dates from the 4th–5th cents. and vividly conveys the spirit of ...
apparition

apparition  

Accounts of apparitions are common in medieval literature. Distinguished from visions by a specific Latin or vernacular terminology (apparere, apparitio and their derivatives), apparitions were ...
Arabic christian literature

Arabic christian literature  

Each province of the Byzantine Empire conquered by the Muslims at the end of the 7th c. kept (as today) a more or less numerous Christian community, with its own ...
Aramaic

Aramaic  

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Overview Page
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Religion
A branch of the Semitic family of languages, especially the language of Syria used as a lingua franca in the Near East from the 6th century bc, later dividing into varieties one of which included ...
arts of love

arts of love  

From the 12th c., court literature gave a large place to the description of love and its effects on individuals and social life. It turned on Ovid's ars amatoria, translated ...
Averroës

Averroës  

(c. 1126–98),Spanish-born Islamic philosopher, judge, and physician. His extensive body of work includes writings on jurisprudence, science, philosophy, and religion. His highly influential ...
Avicebron

Avicebron  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(c.1020–c.1060), the Latin name of the Spanish Jewish philosopher Solomon Ibn Gabirol. St Thomas Aquinas wrote a work against his view that the distinction between matter and form applied in the ...
Avicenna

Avicenna  

(980–1037),Persian-born Islamic philosopher and physician; Arabic name ibn-Sina. His philosophical system, drawing on Aristotle but in many ways closer to Neoplatonism, was the major influence on the ...
Barbarian Laws

Barbarian Laws  

Until their settlement in the Roman Empire, the German peoples followed oral customary laws. The establishment of the Romano-barbarian kingdoms made necessary the revision of common Roman law and the ...

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