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land tenure

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bastard feudalism

bastard feudalism  

The term bastard feudalism, seemingly invented in 1885, has been adopted as a label to distinguish a social structure different from its predecessor in the post‐Conquest period. The essence of the ...
Behetrías

Behetrías  

Seigneurial lands of northern Castile and part of León, in which free landholders were able to move and to choose their lord. Also called benefactoría, this form of commendation was ...
burgage tenure

burgage tenure  

The form of land tenure in most English towns or boroughs, notable for money rents (rather than services) and for its lack of restrictions on property transfers. Practice varied, but ...
colonate

colonate  

An institutionalized form of tenant labour on Roman lands that flourished from the 1st to the 5th century. Details concerning the institution remain elusive, because no recorded law allows scholars ...
copyhold

copyhold  

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Overview Page
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History
Rack rents, or leasehold rents, in which the tenant pays an economic rent to the landlord, only became common across the country in the later 19th cent. Until then large parts of England, ...
cottar

cottar  

A type of tenant in England holding around five acres or less. Some owed labour services, and others did not. Many met subsistence requirements by supplementing their income through wage labour and ...
croft

croft  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
1 An enclosed piece of land by a dwelling.2 In the Scottish Highlands and Islands, a smallholding centred on a cottage.
defective titles

defective titles  

A Commission for Defective Titles was first issued by James I in 1606 to enable his subjects ‘to quietly and privately enjoy their private estates and possessions’. The main object ...
enclosure

enclosure  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
The process or policy of fencing in waste or common land so as to make it private property, as pursued in much of Britain in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
estate management and organization

estate management and organization  

Just as there were many different kinds of landlord in the MA, from the wealthy ecclesiastical institution to the minor gentry family, so the management and organization of estates varied ...
Farmer's Law

Farmer's Law  

Regulatory text from Byzantium found in numerous MSS after the 10th century, dated by scholars variously from the 7th to the 9th centuries. It consists of eighty-five regulations mostly related ...
feudalism

feudalism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
[De]A strictly hierarchical political and economic system in which land is granted in return for military or labour services.
fief and money fief

fief and money fief  

Derived from a Germanic word signifying ‘cattle’ or more generally movable property, the word ‘fief’ [Latin, feudum] came to signify property, usually land, held in return for service that might ...
Galloway

Galloway  

A province of mixed Gaelic and Anglo-Scandinavian settlement in southwestern Scotland, once part of the kingdom of Strathclyde. Until the mid 13th century the native rulers of Galloway were ...
gavelkind

gavelkind  

Was the practice of partible or equal inheritance, as opposed to primogeniture. It was predominant in Kent but found elsewhere, particularly in Wales and Ireland.
Kharaj

Kharaj  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Tax on agrarian land owned by non-Muslims, distinct from the tax system for Muslim-owned agrarian land. First introduced after the Battle of Khaibar, when the Prophet Muhammad allowed Jews to return ...
landlord

landlord  

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Overview Page
An owner of land who leases it to a tenant by way of a tenancy agreement. The tenant is the lessee. See lease; tenancy.
law, Scottish

law, Scottish  

Once thought to have emerged from a series of inchoate, unwritten, and primitive customs into a coherent body of jurisprudence under the enlightened influence of the English model, later medieval ...
linear city

linear city  

A planned city developed along a single, high-speed line of transport; a city form favoured by Soviet planners in the 1920s and 1930s; see R. A. French (1995). Industry is developed along one side of ...
locator

locator  

In medieval usage, locatio meant a planned creation of a new settlement, and the locator was the agent who specialized in this activity. The locator performed this function for lords ...

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