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Adalbero of Laon

Adalbero of Laon  

(c.947–1030)Politically active bishop of Laon (r. 977–1030). Adalbero is notorious for betraying Charles of Lorraine, the last Carolingian claimant to the throne, whom he turned over to Hugh Capet ...
Agricultural techniques

Agricultural techniques  

Between the 10th and the 12th c., the diet of European man became essentially a cereal one, and agricultural techniques were primarily intended for “corn”. The tools were multi-purpose and ...
Andrea Pisano

Andrea Pisano  

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(c.1295–1348/9).Master-Mason of the Duomo (Cathedral), Florence, from c.1337, where he probably designed the niche stage of the campanile. He was Master-Mason at Orvieto Cathedral from 1347.Jane ...
assembly line

assembly line  

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A device moving a good being produced, for example a car, past a sequence of workers or machines. As it passes each work-station, a particular task is performed. Tasks may include adding components, ...
Ban, Banality

Ban, Banality  

The word “ban” (Latin bannum) is of Germanic origin; it was used in the first centuries of the Middle Ages to designate the power of command acknowledged to belong to ...
capital

capital  

1 Man-made material resource used or available for use in production, for example machinery. This is also referred to as physical capital.2 Material or financial wealth, accumulated by an individual ...
capital intensive

capital intensive  

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Those industries which require a large investment in fixed assets. Typical examples are steel, electricity generation, and so forth. Also called heavy industry.
Carthusian

Carthusian  

A monk or nun of an austere contemplative order founded by St Bruno in 1084. (See also Charterhouse.)
census, censuarium

census, censuarium  

The census was a Rent, generally in Money, exacted by the tenant-in-chief of an Estate from his own tenant in seisin or investiture of a plot. After the 15th c. ...
Cistercian

Cistercian  

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History
A member of an order founded as a stricter branch of the Benedictines, the reforms being particularly associated with the influence of St Bernard of Clairvaux, who was particularly critical of ...
Clause Four

Clause Four  

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A clause in the Labour Party constitution containing an affirmation of the Party's commitment to the common ownership of industry and services (this specific point was originally introduced in 1918 ...
Combination Acts

Combination Acts  

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History
1799–1800.These Acts were directed against trade unions (combinations of workmen) when the government feared unrest and even revolution. They failed to crush the unions, but did force them to operate ...
commodity fetishism

commodity fetishism  

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The mistaken view that the value of a commodity is intrinsic and the corresponding failure to appreciate the investment of labour that went into its production. Karl Marx created this term, borrowing ...
contemplation

contemplation  

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Religion
In modern Western use, mental prayer that is non-discursive and thus distinct from meditation. At this stage, prayer usually begins to be less the fruit of human effort and more ...
conversi

conversi  

A name widely used of lay brothers (q.v.) in monasteries. Their exact relation in medieval times to the other members of the community is a matter of considerable obscurity.
corvée

corvée  

This was the obligation to provide Labour, which the lord levied from his men. It could be required on different grounds. It developed in the early Middle Ages on the ...
discovery

discovery  

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Scientists base their enterprise on the notion of discovery. Their work aims at the production of new knowledge about nature, which may consist of recognition or identification of a new ...
encomiendas

encomiendas  

The grants of estates conferred on conquistadors by the Spanish crown; recipients of the grant were called encomenderos. The possession of an encomienda did not confer ownership of land, but ...
Estate, Manor

Estate, Manor  

The power of the lord in the Middle Ages was based on various forms of possession of lands and domination of persons. By “estate”, we understand a local unit of ...
factor-price equalization

factor-price equalization  

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A tendency for international trade to reduce international differences in relative factor prices. In the Heckscher–Ohlin model explaining inter-industry trade, countries specialize in the production ...

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