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Julian

(332—363) Roman emperor 360–3

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Aetius

Aetius  

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Religion
(d. c.366), sophist. He was a dialectician at Alexandria and was made a bishop by the Arians. He and his followers (Anomoeans) asserted that the Son, being begotten, was in essence unlike the Father, ...
agentes in rebus

agentes in rebus  

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The detested frumentarii (see postal service) were abolished by Diocletian, but were soon replaced by ‘agents’ perhaps purposely ill-defined, who likewise served as couriers between the court ...
Ammianus Marcellinus

Ammianus Marcellinus  

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[Na]One of the last great Roman historians. Originally from Antioch, born c.ad 330, he served in the army and settled in Rome c.ad 378. His History, written in Latin for a Roman audience, spanned the ...
Aphthartodocetae

Aphthartodocetae  

An extreme Monophysite group led by Julian, Bp. of Halicarnassus. They taught that from the moment of the incarnation the earthly body of Christ was in its nature incorruptible, impassible, and ...
Apollinarius

Apollinarius  

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Religion
The heresy which denied the completeness of Christ's humanity. Apollinarius (or Apollinaris) (c.310–c.390), who was an upholder of orthodoxy against the Arians, became Bp. of Laodicea c.360. His ...
Aurelius Victor, Sextus

Aurelius Victor, Sextus  

Latin historian; born Africa ca.320, died after 389. By his own account Aurelius was a man of poor rural stock who advanced by his literary skill. He was sufficiently in ...
Babylas

Babylas  

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Religion
(d. c.250),bishop of Antioch and martyr. Few details are known about him, although he is reckoned to be Antioch's most famous early bishop after Ignatius. According to John Chrysostom he refused the ...
Bacchylides

Bacchylides  

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(c.520–450 bc),Greek lyric poet, nephew of Simonides. Although he was well known in Hellenistic and Roman times, only a handful of lines had survived in quotations when a papyrus containing his book ...
Basil, St, ‘the Great’

Basil, St, ‘the Great’  

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Religion
(c.330–79 [or possibly slightly earlier]), one of the three Cappadocian Fathers. The brother of St Gregory of Nyssa, he settled as a hermit near Neocaesarea in 358; he left his retirement only when ...
beard

beard  

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Religion
Full beards were worn by Jewish men, for whom it was a sign of vitality (unlike the Egyptians, Gen. 41: 14). It was an outrage when Hanun, king of the Ammonites, cut off the beards of David's envoys ...
Caius Victorinus Afer

Caius Victorinus Afer  

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Religion
(4th cent.), rhetor and theologian. A native of Africa, he taught in Rome. He became a Christian, resigned his rhetorship in 362 (an event which excited comment and influenced St Augustine), and ...
chrism

chrism  

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Religion
A mixture of oil and balsam, consecrated and used for anointing at baptism and other rites of the Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican Churches. The word is recorded from Old English, and comes via ...
Constantius I

Constantius I  

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(Constantius Chlorus) (d. 306), Caesar (deputy emperor) and then Augustus (emperor) of the western Roman empire (ad 292–306). In 293 Constantius wrested power from the usurper Carausius. Carausius ...
Constantius II

Constantius II  

(Κωνστάντιος), caesar (from 8 Nov. 324) and augustus (from 9 Sept. 337); born 7 Aug. 317, died Mopsoukrene, Cilicia, 3 Nov. 361.The son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ...
Diodore

Diodore  

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Religion
(d. c.390), Bp. of Tarsus from 378. He had combated Arianism in Antioch and opposed Julian the Apostate. In 381 he was named by Theodosius I one of the bishops communion with whom was a test of ...
Diodoros

Diodoros  

(Διόδωρος), bishop of Tarsos (from 378) and theologian; born Antioch, died before 394.Educated at Athens, Diodoros became a monk and then hegoumenos of a monastery outside of Antioch. He ...
Donatism

Donatism  

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Religion
The Donatists were a schismatic body in the African Church. They refused to accept Caecilian, Bp. of Carthage (consecrated most probably in 311), on the ground that his consecrator had been a ...
Emperor

Emperor  

(called basileus, autokrator, also despotes), the pinnacle of Byz. political structure and society, whose extraordinary position is reflected in virtually every creation of Byz. civilization. The ...
Epistolography

Epistolography  

Or the art of writing letters, a genre of Byz. literature akin to rhetoric, popular with the intellectual elite. Copious examples survive from all periods, in more than 150 published ...
Eunapius

Eunapius  

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Greek sophist and historian, was born at Sardis c.ad 345 and studied there under Chrysanthius, and later in Athens under Prohaeresius. When he returned to Sardis he entered the circle of local ...

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