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Samuel Johnson

(1709—1784) author and lexicographer

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A. Edward Newton

A. Edward Newton  

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(1863–1940),Philadelphia book collector, whose charming writings in a manner resembling that of the 18th-century essayists are primarily concerned with his avocation. These include The Amenities of ...
aesthetics

aesthetics  

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Philosophy
(Greek sense perception)Kant keeps the ancient Greek usage, in which anything treating of sense perception may be called an aesthetic. The word had earlier been restricted by Baumgarten to the ...
All Is True

All Is True  

During a performance of this play on 29 June 1613 the cannon fired to salute the King's entry in 1.4 set alight the Globe theatre's thatch, and the whole building ...
Allan Ramsay

Allan Ramsay  

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(b Edinburgh, 2 Oct. 1713; d Dover, 10 Aug. 1784).Scottish painter, active mainly in London, where he was the outstanding portraitist from about 1740 to the rise of Reynolds in the mid-1750s (he also ...
All's Well that Ends Well

All's Well that Ends Well  

A comedy by Shakespeare, first printed in the First Folio of 1623. Its close affinity to Measure for Measure suggests that it was written 1604–5. Both plays are generally classified as ...
Ambrose Philips

Ambrose Philips  

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Literature
(1674–1749),poet, is remembered chiefly for his quarrel with Pope over the relative merits of their pastorals. Pope drew, in the Guardian (No. 40, 1713), ‘a comparison of Philips's performance with ...
Amelia

Amelia  

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Literature
A novel by H. Fielding, published 1752(for 1751).Set in and against a London of almost unrelieved squalor, corruption, and violence, the novel opens in the court of the ‘trading Justice’, Justice ...
Anatomy of Melancholy

Anatomy of Melancholy  

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Literature
By Robert Burton (1621; enlarged 1621–51). In appearance the Anatomy is a medical work, in effect an affectionate satire on the inefficacy of human learning and endeavour. Burton finds melancholy to ...
Anna Brownell Jameson

Anna Brownell Jameson  

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Literature
(b Dublin, 19 May 1794; d Ealing, Middlesex [now in Greater London], 17 Mar. 1860).British writer, daughter of an Irish miniaturist, Denis Brownell Murphy (d 1842), who moved to England in 1798. Her ...
Anna Seward

Anna Seward  

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Literature
(1747–1809) British poet and authorElegy on Captain Cook (1780) PoetryMonody on Major André (1781) MiscellaneousLouisa (1784) PoetryLlangollen Vale, with Other Poems (1796) PoetryOriginal Sonnets on ...
anthology

anthology  

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Literature
A published collection of poems or other pieces of writing; a similar collection of songs or musical compositions issued in one album. The word comes, in the mid 17th century, via French or medieval ...
antiquarianism

antiquarianism  

[Th]An intellectual tradition of enquiry that developed in Europe in the 16th and early 17th centuries ad as a result of new interests in nature, antiquity, the Renaissance of learning, and the ...
Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra  

A tragedy by Shakespeare, printed in the First Folio of 1623, probably written 1606–7. Its chief source is the Life of Antony by Plutarch, as translated by Sir T. North. Minor sources include the ...
aphorism

aphorism  

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Literature
A succinct, pithy adage or maxim expressing a universal truth, such as Procrastination is the thief of time or, more pointedly, Punctuality is the thief of time. [From Greek aphorizein to define, ...
Arrigo Boito

Arrigo Boito  

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Subject:
Music
(b Padua, 24 Feb. 1842; d Milan, 10 June 1918).Italian composer, librettist, and man of letters. His parents, an Italian painter and a Polish countess, separated when he and ...
Arthur Murphy

Arthur Murphy  

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Literature
(1727–1805),playwright, wrote over 20 farces, comedies, and tragedies, including adaptations of Molière and Voltaire; his better‐known pieces include The Way to Keep Him (1760), Three Weeks after ...
As You Like It

As You Like It  

A comedy by Shakespeare, first printed in the Folio of 1623, registered 1600 and probably written 1599–1600. Shakespeare's chief source was Lodge's Rosalynde.Frederick has usurped the dominions of ...
Authorship

Authorship  

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Overview Page
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Literature
For more than two centuries “authorship” has been conceived by American readers in Romantic terms—that is, as the creation, by a stable and individual consciousness, of an original idea or ...
ballad

ballad  

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A poem or song narrating a story in short stanzas. Traditional ballads are typically of unknown authorship, having been passed on orally from one generation to the next as part of the folk culture. ...
Bard

Bard  

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Subject:
Literature
A Pindaric ode by Gray, published 1757, based on a tradition that Edward I ordered the violent suppression of the Welsh bards. It opens with the surviving Bard's cursing of the conqueror as he and ...

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