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John of Gaunt

(1340—1399) prince and steward of England

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battle of Aljubarrota

battle of Aljubarrota  

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The battle of Aljubarrota, on 14 August 1385, was the climax of the struggle over the Portuguese throne begun in 1383 after the death of King Fernão I (r. 1367–1383). ...
battle of Bosworth

battle of Bosworth  

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History
1485.Richard III's usurpation of the throne of Edward V was challenged by Henry Tudor, the future Henry VII. Henry landed at Milford Haven. Richard concentrated his forces at Leicester where he could ...
battle of Najerá

battle of Najerá  

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1367.This engagement, fought in northern Spain, contributed much to the renown of Edward, the Black Prince. He had intervened in Castile to assist Peter II (the Cruel), deposed by his half‐brother, ...
Beaufort

Beaufort  

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History
An English family descended from three illegitimate sons of John of Gaunt (fourth son of Edward III) and Katherine Swynford. The children were legitimated in 1407 but with the exclusion of any claim ...
Book of the Duchess

Book of the Duchess  

A dream‐poem in 1,334 lines by Chaucer, probably written in 1369, in octosyllabic couplets. It is believed to be an allegorical lament on the death of Blanche of Lancaster, the first wife of John of ...
Complaint of Mars

Complaint of Mars  

A poem of 298 lines, which falls into three parts (the first two in rhyme royal): (1) a Proem beginning ‘Gladeth, ye foules, of the morowe gray’ sung by a ...
David II

David II  

(1324–71),king of Scots (1329–71). He succeeded to the throne at the age of 5; and within three years his realm was invaded by Edward Balliol and Edward III of England. With his young wife Joan, ...
De Nugis Curialium

De Nugis Curialium  

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Literature
1 see Map;2 also the subtitle of the Policraticus of John of Salisbury.
duke of Gloucester, Thomas

duke of Gloucester, Thomas  

(1355–97).Also known as Thomas of Woodstock, from his birthplace. He was the youngest son of Edward III, and uncle to Richard II. In 1376 he was declared constable of England. After serving in France ...
Edward III

Edward III  

(1312–77),king of England (1327–77), claimant to the French throne (1340–60 and 1369–77). Edward came to the throne in 1327 in unpropitious circumstances, with the government in the hands of his ...
Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer  

(c. 1342–1400),English poet. His most famous work, the Canterbury Tales (c. 1387–1400), is a cycle of linked tales told by a group of pilgrims. His skills of characterization, humour, and versatility ...
Good Parliament

Good Parliament  

(1376).This Parliament saw the first use of impeachment by the Commons, and the emergence of the office of Speaker. There was widespread discontent with an ineffective and apparently corrupt ...
Henry Beaufort

Henry Beaufort  

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Religion
(c. 1375–1447),Cardinal and Bp. of Lincoln and Winchester. He was born at Beaufort, Anjou, the son of John of Gaunt and Catherine Swynford. His parents having been married in ...
Henry Bolingbroke

Henry Bolingbroke  

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Literature
Duke of Hereford, son of John of Gaunt, deposes Richard II in Shakespeare's play of that name, and becomes Henry IV.
Henry IV

Henry IV  

(1366–1413),king of England (1399–1413). The eldest son and heir of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, he was born at Bolingbroke (Lincs.) in the same year as his cousin Richard II, whom he deposed in ...
Henry of Grosmont

Henry of Grosmont  

(c. 1300–61)was a cousin of Edward III and the king's right‐hand man. His father was earl of Lancaster and Leicester. He was born in Grosmont, created earl of Derby in 1337, and succeeded his father ...
Henry the Navigator

Henry the Navigator  

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History
(1394–1460),Prince of Portugal, was the third son of John I of Portugal and grandson of John of Gaunt. He gained military renown when the Portuguese captured Ceuta from the Moors in 1415 and, as a ...
Henry VI

Henry VI  

(1421–71),king of England (1422–61 and 1470–1). Henry VI was the youngest king of England ever to ascend the throne; the only one ever to be crowned king of France; and arguably the worst, who ...
Henry VII

Henry VII  

(1457–1509),king of England (1485–1509). Though the belief that Henry VII was a new kind of ruler at the head of a new kind of monarchy has long been abandoned, he was certainly an unusual ruler. ...
house of Avis

house of Avis  

Founded along with the Avis dynasty by King João I of Portugal (1357–1433), Master of the Order of Avis and the illegitimate son of King Pedro, when he seized the ...

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